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Hajime Hoshi 

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SINCE Commodore Perry, of the United States Navy, 
opened Japan to the world's commerce, the foreig^n 
trade of that country has developed with wonderful 
rapidity. The startling rapid development of Japanese 
trade is due to the readiness and celerity with which the 
frank and courageous people of the Empire abandoned 
their old customs and turned their faces toward a new 
civilization. There wai no hesitation, no halting, no 
looking backward. The entire Nation awoke with a 
start to the realization that it was moving in the wrong 
direction, and turned about and dropped easily in the 
march of modem progress. Foreign ideas were adopted, 
foreign methods were imitated and frequently improved 
upon, and the closest commercial relations were sought 
with the United States and the countries of Europe. 
With this adoption of foreign ideas came a desire for 
foreign goods. New methods made necessary the use 
of Western machinery in factories and on the farms. 
Even Western foodstuffs became popular. 

Japan's total foreign commerce was increased from 
26,246,545 yen in 1868 to 582,581,800 yen in 1903 or 2,219 
per cent. The total exports were increased from 15,553,- 
473 yen in 1865 to 281,671,889 yen in 1903, or 1,811 per 
cent. During the same period the imports increased 
from 10,693,072 yen to 300,909,911 yen, or 2,790 per 

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In a recent speech on Japan and America, Hon. 
Kogforo Takahira, Japanese Minister at Washington, 
said: **We want the power, that flows from a great trade 
and a great prosperity at home. The efforts now making 
by Japan to increase the commerce between herself and 
the United States and the rest of the world are in them- 
selves a guarantee of long peace. The two countries are 
seeking the same object, but each can obtain it best and 
quickest through the peaceful competition of trade, which 
will bring about closer relations of friendship and com- 
mercial interests between the two peoples. 

**It is not my intention to say anything about Japan 
in the way of self-assertion, but in regard to our endeav- 
ors for progress in modern civilization, I must say that 
we have always been earnest, honest and sincere, and 
there has not been a bit of humbug in the search and 
adoption of anything, either administrative, educational, 
financial or judicial that can be found effective to im- 
prove morally and materially the condition of the country 
after the American or European model.*' 

Hon. O. P. Austin, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 
Department of Commerce and Labor of the United 
States, says in his interesting article on **Our Trade in 
the War Zone*' in the World's WorkSy April, 1904, that 
after a careful examination of the trade of both countries 
now at war he finds Japan's products are entirely differ- 
ent in character from those of the United States, and in 
no way competitive. 

Baron Masanoho Matsudaira, Vice-President of the 
Iriiperial Japanese Commission to the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, has many times earnestly represented 
to Japanese merchants and manufacturers that nothing 
is to be more desired than closer commercial relations 

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with foreig^n countries, and that this is the only means to 
mantain permanent peace in Japan. 

The wide difference between Japanese writing: and the 
written languages of Western countries and the difficul- 
ties of learning the Japanese language have caused Japan 
to be less understood by foreigners. This hand-book is 
published with a view of presenting the real conditions 
of Japan to foreigners and to increase her foreign trade. 

I desire to express my thanks and appreciation to Mr. 
Harushige Yamawaki, Commissioner to the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, who supplied me with much valu- 
able information to complete this book. Also to Mr. 
Hagime Ota, Acting Commissioner-General, and other 
Commissioners and friends who have assisted me directly 
or indirectly in the publication. 


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Reigning Sovereign and the Government 15 

The Constitution and Government 15 

The Present Cabinet Members 16 

l/ocal Governments 16 

The Area 17 

Geographical Formation 17 

Population 17 

Japanese Abroad 1 18 

Foreigners in Japan 18 

Marriage, Birth, Death Rates 18 

Density of the Population 19 

Social Classes of Population 19 

Population of Principal Cities 19 

Manufacturing , 20 

Number of Factories 21 

I^aborers 22 

Working Hours 23 

Wages 23 

Industrial Education 23 

Patents, Protection of Designs and Trade-Marks 24 

Principal Manufacturing Products— 1902 25 

Clothing 26 

Raw Silk 26 

Cotton Spinning 27 

Matting 27 

Straw Plait 27 

Match-Making , 27 

Paper 27 

Rape-Seed Oil 28 

Camphor 28 

Lacquered Wares 28 

Porcelain 28 

Bronze Work 28 

Ivory Work 28 

Sake 28 

Shoyu 28 

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Agricui^Ture 29 

Number of Farmers 29 

Acres of Available Land 29 

Value of Land and Farm Houses 30 

Banking Facilities for Peasants 30 

Japan Hypothec Bank 30 

Local Hypothec Bank 30 

Credit Guilds 30 

Hokkaido Colonial Bank 31 

Agricultural Societies 31 

Experimental Farms 31 

Agricultural Training Schools 31 

Farming Population 31 

Wages 32 

Agricultural Products 32 

Rice 33 

Mugi 33 

Beans 33 

Millet, Sorghum and Buckwheat 33 

Sweet Potatoes 34 

Potatoes 34 

Rape 34 

Indigo 34 

Tobacco 34 

Sugar Cane and Beet Root 34 

Cotton 34 

Cotton, Imported 35 

Hemp 35 

Stalk for Straw Braids 35 

Mint and Gensing 35 

Paper Mulberry Tree 35 

Fruits '. 35 

Flowers and Garden Plants 35 

Sericulture— Its Statistics 36 

Filature— Its Statistics 36 

Tea Manufacturing — Past and Present 37 

Live Stocks 37 


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Foreign Trade 38 

Foreign Trade of Japan Since 1868 38 

Kxport and Import of Specie and Bullion Since 1872 38 

Export to and Import from Various Foreign Countries 

During 1902 39 

Principal Export in 1901 and 1902 40 

Principal Import in 1901 and 1902 44 

Trade between the United States and Japan 47 

The Growth of Trade with the United States During. the 

Last Thirty Years 47 

Principal Export to the United States in 1901 and 1902 48 

Principal Import from the United States in 1901 and 1902 50 

Tariff System 53 

Commercial Bodies- 
Chamber of Commerce 53 

Higher Council of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry . . 54 

Industrial Guilds 54 

Commercial Museum 54 

Finance — 

Revenue and Expenditure from 1868 to 1903 55 

Revenue — 

Ordinary 55 

State Property 55 

Extraordinary 56 

Expenditure — 

Ordinary 56 

Extraordinary 57 

Formosan Finance 57 

Revenue from 1896 to 1903 57 

Expenditure from 1896 to 1903 58 

Finance of Prefectures 58- 

National Loans 58 

Currency System and Its Amount 59 

Banks 59 

The Bank of Japan 60 

The Yokohama Specie Bank 61 

The Hypothec Bank of Japan 61 

The Local Hypothec Bank 62 

The Colonial Bank ; 62 

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Tariff Systkm— Continued. 

Banks — Page 

The Bank of Taiwan 62 

The Industrial Bank of Japan 63 

Exchange ; 63 

Insurance Companies 64 

Clearing Houses 64 

Transportation 66 

Government Railways 66 

Private Railways 66 

Ships 67 

Number and Tonnage 68 

Shipping Statistics of the Ports 68 

Subsidy to the Shipping Business 68 

Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Toyo Kisen Kaisha and Osaka 

Shosen Kaisha 69 

The Road of the three Steamship Companies 70 

Ship Building 70 

Communication 7 

Past . . ^ 7 

Development of Postal Service 7 

Mail Matter Transmitted During 1902 7 

Japanese Post Offices in China and Korea 7 

Postal Rates 72 

Postal Service to Merchants 72 

Expense and Revenue of Post Department 73 

Postal Saving 73 

Telegraph 73 

Telephone 74 

Forestry ". 75 

Acres of Forest 75 

Classes of Forest 75 

Principal Species of Trees 76 

Camphor Tree 76 

Tsuge 76 

Ubame-Gashi 76 

Ichi-Gashi 76 

Kunuki 76 

Akamatsu 76 

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Forestry— Continued. 
Principal Species of Trees — Pag( 






Forestry Industries and Minor Product 78 

Fishery and Marine Products 79 

Fishing Condition 79 

Marine Products 79 

Exports of Marine Products 80 

Exports in Detail 81 

Fish Culture 82 

Salt Manufacturing 82 

Mining 83 

Mining Condition and Its Regulation 83 

Exploration and Mining 84 

Principal Mining Products 84 

Army ! 85 

Military System 85 

Distribution of Standing Army 85 

Strength of Army 86 

Arsenals and Schools 87 

Navy 88 

History : 88 

Naval Statistics 89 

Naval Works 89 

Naval Strength 90 

Expenditure 90 

Education 91 

Present Educational Condition 91 

Statistics of Schools 92 

Periodicals 93 

Formosa 94 

Area 94 

Population 94 

Administration 94 

Education 94 

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Formosa— Continued. Page 

Sanitary System 95 

Finance 95 

Foreign Trade 95 

Railways and Harbor Works 96 

Formosa Tea 96 

Varieties of Tea Plants 9*7 

Tea Cultivation 98 

Manufacturing Tea 99 

Refining Tea 102 

Scented Tea 103 

Tea Market 103 

Export of Tea : 104 

Export of Oolong Tea Since 1867 105 

How to Make a Refreshing Drink 106 

China Grass 107 

Tamsui Hat 107 

The Red Cross Society 109 

Organization 109 

Membership 110 

Work -Ill 

Japanese Exhibits at the Wori,d*s Fair, St. Louis 112 

Japan Participates in ihe World's Fair 112 

Commissioners 112 

The Japanese Exhibit Association 113 

Japanese Garden 114 

A Summary of Japanese Exhibit 115 

Japan's Educational Exhibit 115 

Fine Arts Exhibits 116 

Japan in the Manufactures Building 117 

Japan in the Varied Industries 117 

Japan in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy 118 

Agriculture Building , 119 

Formosan Exhibit 120 

Electricity 121 

Forestry, Fish and Game Exhibit 121 

Transportation Building 122 

Liberal Arts 124 

Fair Japan on the "Pike' ' 125 



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Reignins Sovereisn and the Government. 

THE Empire of Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu, who 
ascended to tbe throne in 660, B. C. The reigning dynasty 
still remains unbroken, which is an unparalleled fact in the history 
of any other country. His Majesty, the present Emperor of Japan, 
is the one Ifundred and twenty-second of the dynasty founded 
2,564 years ago. The Emperor was born on November 3. 1852, 
at Kyoto, and on the death of his father. Emperor Komei, suc- 
ceeded to the throne on February 13, 1867. On February 9, 1869, 
the Emperor was married to Princess Haruko, daughter of Prince 
Ichijo. The Empress was born on May 28, 1850. 

Imperial Prince Yoshihito, the heir apparent, was born on 
August 31, 1879, was proclaimed Crown Prince on November 3, 
1889, and was married May 10, 19D0, to Princess Sadako, daughter 
of Prince Kujo. The Crown Princess was born on June 25, 1864. 
Two sons were born to them. They are Prince Hirohito, born 
on April 29th, 1901, and Prince Yasuhito, born on June 25, 1902. 

The Emperor has four daughters. Princess Masako, born on 
September 30, 1888; Princess Fusako, born on June 28, 1890; 
Princess Nobuko, born on August 7, 1891, and Princess Toshiko, 
born on May 11, 1896. The civil list is 3,000,000 yen a year. 

The Constitution and Government. 

The form of the Japanese Government, until but recently, 
was an absolute monarchy. A constitution was issued on Feb- 
ruary II, 1889, in which the Emperor was defined as the head of 
the Empire, combining in himself the right of sovereignty and 
of executive functions. The Emperor has under his command a 
Cabinet, composed of ten Ministers of State, who are appointed 
by and responsible to him. He has also under his direction a 
Privy Council, composed of a body of men who are charged with 
the duty of deliberating upon important matters of state whenever 
they are consulted by the Emperor. The Emperor exercises the 
legislative powers with the consent of the Imperial Diet. 'Ihe 

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Imperial Diet consists of two houses, the House of Peers and 
the House of Representatives, the members of the former house 
numbering 300 and those of the latter 369. The, proportion of 
the Representatives to the population is one to 123,000. The 
presidents of both houses receive an annual salary of 5,Doo yen; 
the vice-presidents 3,000 yen, and the members of both houses 
2,000 yen, beside traveling expenses. 

The Imperial Diet has, besides other things, control over the 

The present Cabinet consists of tlie folloiving 

Prime Minister, Count Taro Katsura. 

Foreign Affairs, Baron Jutaro Komura. 

Finance, Baron Arasuke Sone. 

Interior, Viscount Akimasa Yoshikawa. ' 

Justice, Yoshinawo Hatano. 

War, Lieut.-General Seiki Terauchi. 

Navy, Baron Gonbei Yamamoto. 

Education, Kanai Kubota. 

Agriculture and Commerce, Baron Keigo Kiyoura. 

Transportation and Communication, Kanetake Oura. 

Local Governments. 

For the purposes of local administration, Japan is divided into 
prefectures, Fu, or Ken. Each prefecture is further divided into 
municipalities, cities (Shi) and counties (Gun). A county is 
again subdivided into towns (Cho) and villages (Son). The 
Island of Hokkaido has a governor and a specially organized 
government; and Formosa has a governor-general, who is in- 
vested with an extensive power. There are at present 3 Fu, 
43 Ken, 58 Shi, 636 Gun, 1,054 Sho, and 13,468 Son. Each of 
these divisions has its own assembly, elected by the people. The 
expenditure incurred by these Fu and Ken amounted to 52,478,449 
yen in 1901. The sum granted by the central government to the 
Fu and Ken, and which constitutes the treasury of these local 
governments, is about 6,000,000 yen annually. The expenditure 
incurred by the Shi, Cho, and Son was 63,433,224 in the same 

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The Area. 

Japan consists of five large islands and nearly six hundred 
small islands. The principal islands are Honshyu (mainland), 
Kiushyu, Shikoku, Hokkaido (Yezo), and Taiwan (Formosa). 
The Formosa Island was ceded to Japan by China in accordance 
with the treaty known as the Shimonoseki Treaty, entered into 
between Japan and China in 1895 as the result of the war between 
these countries. The whole of the Japanese islands cover an 
area of 27,062 square Ri, or about 161,198 square miles. The 
area is about i-325ths of the entire surface of the globe, or 
i-i07th of the entire extent of the Asiatic Continent. Honshu 
is the largest island, with 14,571 square Ri, or 92,673 square miles, 
which is 53.64 per cent of the total area. Hokkaido is the next 
largest island, with 5,062 square Ri, or 30,136 square miles. 
Kiushyu has 2,618 square Ri, or 14,691 square miles; Formosa 
2,253 square Ri, or 13,417 square miles, and Shikoku 1,181 square 
Ri, or 7,041 square miles. 

Geographical Formation. 

The Japanese islands in general are mountainous, extensive 
plains being found very rarely. Rivers and streams are found 
almost everywhere, serving for irrigation purposes, although 
not much for transportation. Waterfalls are abundantly found, 
and they may be utilized for generating electricity. The average 
height of mountain peaks in Japan is about 6,000 feet above the 

Lake Biwa, in the central part of Japan, is the largest expanse 
of water, being 81 square Ri, or 482 square miles. 

The climate in Japan is mild, as the result of the surrounding 
seas. The Black Current (Kuro Shiwo), passing the southern 
shores of the main island^ modifies the cold climate of the north. 
The whole islands are visited with ample rainfall, in Honshyu 
the average amount being 2,000 cubic c. m. annually 


luring the 
>ix millic 

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The population of Japan during the eighteenth century was 
from twenty-five to twenty-six millions, which increased to 

33,110,825 in 1872. The following table gives the population in 
different years and the rate of increase. 

Year. Total. 

1897 43,228,863 

1898 43,763,855 

1899 44,260,642 

I9OQ 44,815,580 

I9OI 45,426,651 

Rate of Annual 
increase. Per Cent. 






The population in 1901 consisted of 22,926,043 males and 
22,613,177 females. 

Japanese residing in foreign countries in 1902, 139,533 (males, 
105,316, females, 34,237), of whom 31,511 were in the United 
States, 64,929 in the Hawaiian Islands, 22,471 in Korea, 4,695 in 
China, 4,683 in Russian colonies, and 5,168 in British colonies. 

Foreign residents in Japan in 1902 numbered 14,257, of whom 
10,318 were males and 3,939 females. 

Divided according to different nationalities, they were as 
follows : 

Chinese 8,027 Dutch 275 

English 2,215 Austria-Hungarian ^^ 

American 1,624 Danes *. 08 

French 505 Italian 47 

German 647 Spain 44 

Korean 235 Swedish 51 

Russian 185 Others 225 

Portuguese 107 

The following table shows the marriage, birth and death rates : 

Excess of 

Number of 

Number of 






Over Deaths. 

1897 .. 

. . . .365,207 




1898 .. 





1899 .. 





1900 . . 





1901 .. 






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Number of 
Per 1.000. 

Number of 
Per 100. 

Number of Male 

Births per 

100 Female 


Number of 
Per 100. 

No. of Male 

Deaths per 

100 Female 



. . 8.45 












. . 6.72 






... 770 






... e.33 





In 1899 the households in Japan numbered 8,180,240. The 
average number in a family is about 5.08 persons. The density 
of the population is about 296 to each square mile, not including 
Formosa, which is less thickly populated as compared with the 
main islands. About 25 per cent of the population is living in 
rural districts. The rate of increase of the population in a city 
of more than 10,000 population is twice as much as that in a 
rural district. 

The people may be regarded as being divided into four classes 
in respect to their social standing, namely, the members of the 
Imperial family, Peers, Shizoku, or the Samurai class, and 
Heimin, or the common. The Peers of Japan are of five grades, 
Prince, Marquis, Coi?nt, Viscount, and Baron. 

The following table gives large towns and cities with their 
population estimated in 1895 : 

Tokyo 1,440,121 

Osaka 821,235 

Kyoto 353,139 

Nagoya 244,145 

Kobe 215,780 

Yokohama 193,762 

Hiroshima 122,306 

Nagasaki 107,422 

Kanazawa 83,662 

Sendai 83,325 

Hakodate 78,040 

Fukuoka 66,190 

Wakayama 63,667 

Tokushima 61,501 

Kumamoto 61,463 

Toyama 59,558 

Okayama 58,025 

Otaru '. 53,961 

Kagoshima 53,481 

Niigata 53,366 

Sakai 50,203 

Fukui 44,286 

Akamagaseki 42,786 

Shizuoka 42,172 


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IN early times in Japan, manufacturing belonged to a class of 
people which inherited its art through generations. Each 
individual had his particular trade, which was followed by his 
sons, who in turn transmitted it to their offspring, and the skill 
thus acquired became hereditary. In 201 A. D., Corea was ac- 
quired by Japan through the expedition led by Empress Jingo 
and as the result Korean art and artisans were brought into Japan. 
The Japanese also introduced Chinese art through the Koreans, 
and thus farther improved their methods of manufacturing. The 
feudal clan Taiko in 1592 again invaded Corea, and brought back 
spoils of war in the form of rare collections of continental art, 
which still more added to the learning and improvement of the 
Japanese people. A state of tranquillity prevailed during the 
reign of the Tokugawa feudal clan, which continued for about 
260 years, and manufacturing art made rapid progress during 
that period. Encouragement and special protection were accorded 
manufactures and men of enterprise by the Government and the 
clans holding sway in the different provinces. 

A new era of industry was opened with the advent of Com- 
modore Perry, who in 1854 led the famous American naval 
expedition to Japan, knocked at her exclusive gates, and intro- 
duced western enlightenment. The introduction of western 
sciences and arts has completely changed the aspect of Japanese 
manufacturing methods. Hitherto all sorts of manufacturing had 
been confined to operations in individual homes but now the 
factory system has been adopted and work is pursued on a more 
liberal and extensive scale. During the period from 1846 to 
1853 an arsenal was established by the feudal government, which 
was built on western lines, and the manufacture of guns and other 
weapons, ammunitions of war, was set on foot in the country. 
Lord Shimazu, of the Satsuma Province, established a spinning 
mill in 1861, which was the first ever built in the far East. 
During the period from 1854 to 1859 a shipyard was built by the 
feudal government, which is at present known as the Mitsubishi 
Dock Co. In 187 1 another shipyard was built by the government 

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at Kobe, which now stands as the famous Kawaski Dock Yards. 
The same government also established a filature works at Tomioka 
in 1872; a silk spinning mill at Gumma, and cotton mills at Aichi 
and Hiroshima in 1877; cement works at Tokyo in 1875 and a 
glass factory at Shinagawa, and a paper mill at Oji in 1876. 
These works and factories have now come to be owned by 
private corporations. The government made every effort to im- 
prove the industries and manufactures of the country ; it installed 
plants, provided them with the best and latest machinery and 
implements imported at great cost from Europe and America. 
After performing these beneficent works the government volun- 
tarily turned the institutions over to private companies, allowing 
them to acquire absolute ownership on easy terms, and even giving 
encouragement by allowing subsidies for a limited time. 

In 1878 the first domestic exposition was held at Tokyo, in 
which city two similar expositions have been successfully carried 
out. The fourth exposition was held at Kyoto in 1895 and the 
fifth at Osaka in 1903. Japan participated in the universal ex- 
positions of Vienna, Philadelphia, Chicago and Paris, and in other 
expositions of limited scope. All affairs relating to the manu- 
facturing industry of Japan are at present under direct control 
of the Bureau of Commerce and Industry. Mr. Morita is at 
present director of this bureau. 

Number of Factories. 

There are today forty-six factories under the direct manage- 
ment of the Japanese Government. These are: 

One printing work, under the cabinet officials ; twenty-six 
factories for the manufacture of firearms, gunpowder, woolen 
goods, canned meat and map printing work under the Department 
of War; ten factories for the manufacture of guns, gunpowder 
and ship-building materials under the Department of the Navy; 
an iron work factory under the Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce; and five factories for making railway cars, electrical 
and light-house supplies, under the Department of Transportation 
and communication. There are, besides, 7,349 private factories, 
which employ 415,555 workingmen. The private factories, which 
are controlled by incorporated bodies, number 2,477, with a paid- 

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up capital of 166,293,003 yen. Within the last five years the 
number of factories in Japan has increased at the rate of 60 per 
cent. The increase of capital during the same period has been 
in even ratio. The principal manufacturing companies are given 
as follows: 

Companies. Paid-up Capital. 

Sake : 217 • 4,364,337 yen 

Tobacco 155 11,245,063 yen 

Cotton Spinning 58 36,108,983 yen 

Silk 321 5,635,320 yen 

Mining and Refining 40 9,655,412 yen 

Electric ' 64 9,746,432 yen 

Gas 4 3,131,500 yen 

Ship Building 15 8,710,031 yen 

Paper Manufacturing 42 7,668,286 yen 

Kerosene Boring 71 6,285,581 yen 

Cement 21 . 4,221,106 yen 

Coal Mining '. 27 6,828,200 yen 

Foreign companies doing business in Japan are well protected 
under the liberal laws prevailing in that country ; there are eleven 
manufactories owned by foreigners in Japan, the estimated capital 
of which is 19,343,000 yen. The principal operations consist of 
boring for kerosene oil, machine works and brewing of beer. 


Statistics gathered in 1901 show that there were at that time 
415,555 men and women employed in the various factories of 
Japan. Of these the women numbered 257,320 and the men 
158,215, which, on a percentage basis, shows 35 per cent of men 
and 65 per cent of women. The fact that more women than 
men are employed is due to the number of factories for fibres, 
filture, spinning and weaving, in which the work is done entirely 
by women. The employes may be divided into two classes, day 
workers and boarding workers. The former are those who live 
near the factories and go daily to their work, while the latter 
have no home near at hand but are provided with lodging and 
board at the factory. 

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WorHing Hours. 

The working hours are usually fixed at twelve hours a day. 
In such factories as machine shops and ship-building yards, the 
work-day is limited to eight hours. 


The wage rate is about 40 sen a day for the adult male 
employes in fibre, cotton and weaving mills, while for female 
laborers the rate is 25 sen a day. In machine shops the rate is 
usually higher, being from about 70 to 80 sen a day. Some of 
these workmen get as much as one yen or more a day. In match 
factories the wages are much lower, being 15 to 25 sen for an 
ordinary female and 8 to 15 sen for little girls. In tobacco 
factories and printing shops a woman receives about 25 sen a day 
for her work, while a man gets from 45 to 55 sen. 

Industrial £>ducation. 

An engineering college, now a part of the Imperial University 
at Tokyo, was established in 1871. This institution gives the 
highest technical education in the Empire. The Tokyo Higher 
Polytechnical School, which was established by the government 
in 1881, together with the Engineering and Science College of 
the Imperial University at Kyoto, constitute the industrial in- 
stitutions second in importance. There are, besides, two Higher 
Polytechnical Schools at Osaka, which are furnishing important 
technical education. 

With the object of distributing technical knowledge more 
widely and of imparting a general idea of science to the ap- 
prentices and young mechanics, as well as the manufacturers of 
the country, many schools have been established in cities and 
towns of the different prefectures by the government, which has 
been most earnest in encouraging industry since 1894. There are 
at present twenty higher grade schools of this kind, distributed 
throughout the country, besides twenty-one apprentices' schools 
and commercial and technical supplementary schools. A large 
number of these schools receive their support from prefectual 
governments and private individuals. 

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Patents* Protection of Designs and Trade Marks. 

The right to monopolize a certain field of industry was given 
to manufacturers and technical experts some time in the thirteenth 
century in Japan, but this was done rather for the purpose of in- 
creasing the revenue of the feudal lords than for encouraging 
industry. The first legislative measures for protecting inventors 
were enacted in 1871, and those for trade-marks in 1881. For 
inventions of meritorious character inventors were honored with 
the decoration of the "Blue Ribbon/* 

Statistics of patents, designs and trade-marks granted by the 
Japanese Government are given in the following table: 

Year. Patents. Trade-marks. Designs. 

1885 99 949 

1886 205 508 

1887 log 361 

1888 183 436 

1889 209 664 23 

1890 240 583 82 

1891 367 554 117 

1892 379 588 48 

1893 318 648 59 

1894 326 877 64 

1895 223 923 94 

1896 169 858 96 

1897 188 2335 90 

1898 293 1597 52 

1899 297 1942 139 

190D 586 1767 130 

1901 606 1621 141 

1902 871 2016 252 

5,972 19,227 1,387 

Since the revision of the treaties with foreign countries in 
1899, the laws governing patents of designs, and of trade-marks, 
which hitherto had been confined to Japanese citizens, were 
extended to foreigners residing in Japan. Japan has also joined 
the International League for the Protection of Inventors, and 

24 Digitized by Google 

all necessary arrangements required for the protection of foreign 
inventions have now been completed. 

The following table shows the number of patents, designs 
and trade-marks granted from November, 1896, to June, 1902: 

Patents. Designs. Trade-marks. 

Austria-Hungary 5 

Belgium 3 


Denmark 5 

France " 25 

Germany 54 

Great Britain 103 

Netherland 2 

Italy 4 

Korea 2 




Norway-Sweden 4 

Switzerland 3 

United States 283 














493 10 2551 

The principal manufacturing products in 1902 
^v^ere aa f ollo^nra: 

Straw plait 2,516,219 yen 

Matting 8,539,309 yen 

Woven cloth I53,595,9i9 yen 

Porcelain 6»935,i76 yen 

Lacquered ware 5,768,099 yen 

Bronze 1,717,419 yen 

Rape seed oik 7»553»095 yen 

Wax 2,353,199 yen 

Indigo 4,821,485 yen 

Camphor i,309,375 yen 

Menthol 1,246,129 yen 

Isinglass 1,068,463 yen 

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Matches 9,266,689 yen 

Leather 2,566,544 yen 

Paper, Japanese 10,308,640 yen 

Paper, European 7,I40,94S yen 

Wax 2,353,199 yen 

Camphor (exclud. Formosa) i,309,375 yen 

Woolen 5,083,887 yen 

Sake 187,049,000 yen 

Shoyn 68,940,680 yen 

Raw silk 21,111,424 lbs. 

Cotton spun ! 274,232,180 lbs. 

In 1901 there were 347,352 weaving houses, with 791,118 
employes, of which 43,172 were men and 747,946 women. These 
produced 153,595,919 yens* worth of woven clothes during the 
same year. The number of the weaving houses is gradually 
decreasing, owing to the increase of factories and shops that 
use labor-saving machinery. 

The following table shows the kind of cloths produced by 
these weaving houses and factories: 

Silk cloth 62,109,119 

Silk obi 7,952,622 

Silk mixed with cotton 11,116,264 

Silk mixed with cotton 6,064,351 

Cotton cloth 44,888,466 

Cotton obi 719,020 

Linen cloth 2,775,062 

Obi-belt is an expensive article, costing, on an average, ten 
yen a piece, and for the most expensive kind from 300 to 500 
yen. It constitutes an important part of woman's apparel 'in 
Japan. The total woolen product in 1901 was valued at 5,083,887 

Raw silk is an important product of Japan. In 1901 the 
product of this article amounted to 21,111,424 pounds. Silk 
Weaving houses that year numbered 410,601, and there were 
3,701 factories. The comparatively small number of factories 
shows that the silk-weaving is better done by manipulation than 
by the use of machines. 

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Cotton spinning has made a rapid progress. In 1888 there 
were only twenty- four mills, with 113,856 spindles, which pro- 
duced 13,192,486 pounds of the article. In 1901 the number of 
mills increased to eighty-one and spindles to 1,118,762, in which 
53,021 men and women were employed, producing 277,332,180 
pounds. The capital invested in this industry amounts to 
36,115,567 yen. The material, or raw cotton, used is chiefly 
imported. In 1902 the raw cotton imported amounted to 79,784,781 
yen in value, of which the United States took 19,475,817 yen. 
The import from the United States in 1900 reached 27,019,134 
yen. The export of cotton yarns in 1902 amounted to 19,901,521 
yen, and was made principally to China. 

Matting. — The production of matting in 1901 amounted in 
value to 3,578,822 yen for home use, and about 7,000,000 yen for 
export. The export of this article dates back to 1885. Okayama 
is the most famous center for this industry, over 4,000,000 yen 
in value of the matting being annually exported from that place. 
During the last five years the export from Okayama has almost 
doubled that of all previous years. The total export of matting 
in 1902 is 6,719,073 yen. 

Straw Plait. — In 1901 there were 32,107 factories of straw 
plait, with 96,538 employes. The principal factories are located 
in Okayama, Kagawa and Aichi. In 1902 the export of straw 
plait from these pliaces amounted to 2,936,858 yen in value, the 
greater part of which went to England and to the United States. 

Match-Making. — There were 252 match factories in 1896, 
which produced annually 546,738 yens of matches. The number 
of the factories has now increased to 261 and the product to 
9,266,689 yen in value. The export of matches amounted to 
8,169,966 yen in 1902. China, Hong Kong and the Straits Settle- 
ments take the major part of this output. Over 75 per cent 
of the total production constitutes the export. Kobe is the 
center of the match industry, producing about 6,000,000 yens' 
worth of the article annually; Osaka and Tokyo are also large 
producers of matches. 

Paper. — There were in 1901 68,562 paper factories, producing 
to the value of 12,720,000 yen annually. All these manufacture 
the original Japanese paper. There are, besides, twelve mills, 

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27 ^ 

including one Government factory, in which the European meth- 
ods of paper-making are adopted, with an aggregate capital of 
7,140,954 yen. These mills produce annually 113,348,340 pounds 
of paper, which is equivalent to 7,140,945 yen in value — that is, 
about 6.3 sen a pound. The import of paper in 1901 amounted 
to 2,213,351 yen. The import of printing paper is decreasing, 
while that of stationery paper is increasing. 

Rapeseed Oil. — In 1901 there were 7,155 factories of the 
rape-seed oil, producing annually 9,624,840 gallons, equivalent to 
7>553>095 yen in value. The number of the factories has decreased 
from 9,604 in 1894 to 7,155 in 1901; while the product remained 
almost stationary. 

Camphor. — Camphor manufactories in 1901 numbered 932, 
producing about 2,650,162 pounds annually. These figures do not 
include the Formosan camphor product, which alone amounts 
to 4,849,949 pounds a year. The Formosan camphor was for 
some time monopolized by the Formosan Government, but now 
it is included in that of Japan proper. A large quantity of the 
camphor oil is also produced in Formosa. 

Lacquered Wares. — In 1901 the factories for lacquered wares 
numbered 5,393, producing annually to the value of 5,768,099 yens. 

Porcelain. — The output of porcelain in 1901 was valued at 
6,935,176 yen, of which 2,491,668 yen constituted the export. 
Nagoya produced one-third of the total. Gifu, Kyoto, Kanazawa 
and Kagoshima are the principal localities where the goods 
are manufactured. 

Bronze Work. — The total amount of bronze work in 1901 had 
a value of 1,714,419 yen, of which Kyoto produced 725,986 yen. 

Ivory Work. — Kanazawa is the center of the ivory industry, 
producing annually about 450,000 yen in value of ivory articles. 

Sake. — There were in 1901 22,196 factories, producing an- 
nually 187,049,000 gallons of the liquor, equivalent in value to 
about 150,000,000 yen. A heavy tax is levied on- sake, the rate 
being 7% cents to each sho (sho-1.38 quart). Revenue obtained 
by the government from taxes on sake amounted to 62,961,698 
yen in 1901. 

Shoyu, or Soy. — The shoyu manufactories in 1901 numbered 
I5»993, producing 68,940,680 gallons annually. 

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AGRICULTURE has played an important part in the develop- 
ment of Japan, because the country had had very little 
foreign commerce for twenty-five centuries, and the people had to 
depend upon the resources of their domain. The people in old 
times were divided into four classes — warrior, peasant, manu- 
facturer and merchant. In order of importance, the warrior, or 
the ruling class, of course, was considered the highest; next 
came the peas^^nt, and then the manufacturer and the merchant 
came the lowest. Nowadays no such distinction . is made, but 
all the classes receive equal attention and respect. 

Agriculture is the pursuit that is engaged in almost without 
intermission throughout the year. Crops are raised twice or 
three times a year on the same field. The farmer, moreover, 
does not wholly work in the field, for he makes himself useful 
in raising silkworms, reeling silk, etc., or engaged in such work 
as may be done during the time not occupied by farming. 

Stock raising is not yet well advanced, as it is quite a new 
thing to the Japanese, who had not been meat-eaters until 

There are about 15,000,000 independent farmers, about 2,000,- 
000 who are partly dependants, and partly leasers of land, and 
about 1,000,000 bona Ude tenant farmers. 

The Japanese Islands (excluding Formosa) cover an area of 
104,460,311 acres, of which 34,967,230 acres are owned by private 
individuals, and the rest, or 69.493,081 acres, belong to the public 
and the Imperial household. The gross area of available land 
is 14,995,271 acres, constituting 15.7 per cent of the whole (ex- 
cluding Formosa). It consists as follows: 


Wet land 6,734,108. 

Upland fields 5,626,910 

Mulberry field 545,691 

Tea plantation 78,128 

Plains and pastures 2,634,352 

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The cultivation of rice being the principal occupation of the 
Japanese peasants, the greater part of the available land consists 
of rice fields, which occupy the low, wet land. Upland fields 
are found on elevated places where drainage is good. In densely 
populated localities, even the slopes of hills are utilized for the 
upland farming. Water used for irrigation is supplied from 
rivers or reservoirs filled by rain. In about 755»983 of the 
wet land crops are raised twice a year. The second crop that 
is raised after the harvest of rice is usually mugi, rape, or the 
Japanese clover. 

The cultivated land that forms the basis of agriculture covers 
more than 5,000,000 cho, yielding about 1,000,000,000 of yen 
worth of crops annually. Of this figure rice constitutes about 
400,000,000 of yen. The whole ol the cultivated land is estimated 
at 7,000,000,000 of yen, farmers* dwellings and farming houses 
are estimated at 300,000,000 of yen, and farming machinery and 
implements at 100,000,000 of yen. 

Banking Facilities for Peasants. 

To give banking facilities to the peasants there were estab- 
lished the Japan Hypothec Bank (Noko Ginko), the Credit 
Guilds, and the Colonial Bank (Takusboku Kinko). 

The Japan Hypothec Bank was established in 1896 with the 
object of supplying the funds necessary for the development of 
agriculture and industry. It is a joint stock company with a 
capital of 10,000,000 yen, receiving also a grant-in-aid from the 
government. The loans are to be paid on the installment plan 
within a fixed period, generally fifty years. 

Local PIvfKDthec Banks were also established in 1896, one in 
each prefecture or di-trict. They are also joint stock companies 
with a capital of not less than 200,000 yen each. Banks of this 
kind number at present forty-six. 

The Credit Guilds are financial institutions recently organized 
with the object of enabling small farmers to obtain loans. They 
may be compared with the people's banks in Germany. There 
are at present 300 of this kind of banks distributed throughout 
the country. 

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The Hokkaido Colonial Bank was established in 1899 for the 
purpose of aiding colonial exploitation in the Island of Hokkaido. 
It is a joint stock company with a capital of 3,000,000 yen. The 
Japanese government has subscribed 1,000,000 yen to this bank. 

A law for agricultural societies was promulgated in 1899 with 
the consent of the Diet, and in the following year legislation was 
enacted providing, among other things, a grant of a subsidy not 
exceeding 150,000 yen annually to the societies established in 
conformity with the law. There are forty-iive agriculture 
societies receiving such aid from the government. Besides these 
there are 561 sub-societies. For the benefit of the small farmers 
and small manufacturers Industrial Guilds were established, 
which in 1902 numbered 481. There are also 112 Staple Product 
Guilds and 212 Cattle and Horse Guilds. 

For advancing agriculture the State Experimental Farms were- 
established in 1886 at Tokyo with the object of showing the 
people improved method of cultivation, the selection of seed and 
their mixing, etc. These at present number ten, besides 42 local 
experimental farms established by prefectural governments, and 
no experimental farms, established by sub-prefectural district gov- 
ernments. Lecturers are appointed in local and sub-local districts 
to give lectures on the subject of farming, and to answer questions 
from farmers. These lecturers number 310. 

Local agricultural training schools are maintained under the 
supervision of the Minister of Agriculture. The object of these 
institutes is to teach the farmers and their sons the principles of 
agriculture, elementary knowledge of surveying, of meteorology, 
and of chemistry, natural history, veterinary science, horse shoe- 
ing, etc. There are six such institutes, besides two state sericul- 
tural training schools and 39 public and 86 private local sericul- 
tufal schools. There is one state silk-conditioning house at 
Yokohama. The Japanese government has taken much interest 
in cattle breeding, importing a large number of horses and bulls. 

The College of Agriculture of the Imperial University of 
Tokyo had 3,435 students in 1902. 

The farming population in 1901 was estimated at 28,000,000, 
with 4,8oo,ODO households. These households contain an average 
of 5.8 persons, of whom 2.5 are of the age capable of working. 

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One hundred and forty-three thousand five hundred and fifty- 
four farmers emigrated to Hokkaido during a period of five 
years ending in 1900. 

Wages. — The average wages of the farm laborers were as 
follows in 1901 : 

Male. Female. 
Sen. Sen. 

Day work on farm 29.5 19.0 

Day work in sericulture 30.8 19.3 

Reeling silk 20.0 

Yen. Yen. 

♦Farm work by the year 32.12 17.06 

♦Laborers are supplied with board and lodging. 

Wages in general show a tendency to advance. Comparing 
• the wages of the present day with those of ten years ago, it is 
readily seen that they have almost doubled. 

Product. — The gross value of annual agricultural product is 
given in the following table: 

Rice 445,439,087 yen 

Mugi 124,064,274 yen 

Beans 35,952,282 yen 

Others 153,872,649 yen 

Straw 86,982,360 yen 

Cocoons 93,618,991 yen 

Silkworm eggs 3,844,126 yen 

Mulberry twigs and silkworm litters 7»953»I03 yen 

Cured tea 9,037^545 yen 

Live stock (cattle, horse, sheep and swine) 4»953»533 yen 

Slaughtered beast 12,540,394 yen 

Cattle and horses killed by disease 256,831 yen 

Dairy products 4,128,017 yen 

Staple manure 23,672,628 yen 

Poultry and eggs 17,281,419 yen 

Total 1,023,587,239 yen 

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Principal Products. 

Rice. — In 1901 there were 6,850,878 acres of rice fields, and 
these produced 234,574,615 bushels of rice. The average annual 
production of rice is about 206,000,000 bushels. The rate is 
about 75 bushels to each 2.45 acres. Five bushels of rice costs 
from ten to eleven yen. In 1901 Japan imported rice to the value 
of 11,787,958 yen, while the export amounted to 6,908,913 yen. 
Taking the last ten years' statistics, the export is seen to have 
remained almost stationary, while the. annual import fluctuated at 
6,000,000 yen. Japan's annual product of rice is becoming sta- 
tionary, and if the living standard of the people does not change, 
the import of rice would be increased according to the increase of 
the population. 

MuGi. — In 1901 there were 4,449,717 acres of fields cultivated 
with mugi, and the product amounted to 103,201,035 bushels, that 
is, about 55 bushels to each 2.45 acres. The export of this article 
amounted in 1901 to only 21,605 yen. Even in the year of the 
greatest export it did not exceed 200,000 yen. The import of 
mugi in 1901 was 272,869 yen ; in 1900 62,343 yen. 

The import in the form of flour, however, has increased from 
619,009 yen in 1894 to 3,146,171 yen in 1901. In 1900 the import 
amounted to more than 4,500,000 yen, and since that it is steadily 

Beans. — Beans are extensively used in Japan. This article 
constitutes a subsidiary article of food, being used for the making 
of shoyu, or the Japanese sauce, as well as for food for cattle 
and for manure. Beans are imported largely from China and 
Korea. There are two principal varieties, namely, the shoja 
beans and the red beans. Both are cultivated during the seasons 
intervening between harvests of other crops. The red beans are 
used for confectionery. The annual output (A beans is about 
25,000,000 bushels. 

Millet, Sorghum and Buckwheat. — Millet is used as food, 
being eaten mixed with rice; sorghum for making dumplings; 
and buckwheat for making macaroni. The annual output of 
millet is about 17,500,000 bushels ; sorghum 2,000,000 bushels, and 
buckwheat 6,000,000 bushels. 

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Sweet Potatoes. — Sweet potatoes are used ior food stuff, both 
for men and animals. It is extensively cultivated in the southern 
provinces. The annual output is about 6,624,800,000 pounds. 

Potatoes. — Potatoes are raised for the same purpose as the 
sweet potato. The present annual output of this product is about 
662,480,000 pounds, and is steadily increasing. 

Rape. — Rape is grown as the second crop in rice fields. The 
use of this artide is for making oil. The rape-seed oil was 
formerly used fo^ illumination. The oil is largely exported to 
be used as a lubricant. The rape-seed cake serves as manure. 
The average annual output of rape is about 60,000,000 bushels. 

Indigo. — Since the introduction from abroad of a cheaper form 
of dye, the sale of the home-grown indigo has somewhat declined. 
The Japanese indigo, however, still retains a fair value, owing 
to the good quality of the dye. The annual output of this 
product ^is about 124,215,000 pounds. 

Tobacco. — Tobacco became one of the government monopolies 
in 1898. It was a partial monopoly, since the government had 
the right of buying and selling the leaves alone, until 1904, when 
the Diet enacted the legislation making the tobacco industry a 
complete monopoly of the government. The annual output of 
tobacco is about 74,529,000 pounds. Tht output in 1901 was 
65,069,126 pounds. In 1902 Japan imported 956,817 yens' worth 
of tobacco, of which 953,637 yens' worth of the article came from 
the United States^ In 1899 the import from the United States 
amounted to 5,ppo,ooo yen. 

Sugar Cane asstd. Beet Root. — This industry is not now 
flourishing as, it;Klid formerly, owing to the comparatively high 
cost of the production. The beet root cultivation recently started 
at Hokkaido hasr-mot been successful. It is, however, steadily 
growing more stressful in Formosa. The output of beet root 
was. 1,270,776,670 founds in 19OD, and 1,111,958,363 pounds in 1901. 
The consumption of sugar has much increased. Its import in 
1901 was 33,493,567 yen and in 1902 14,304,534 yen. The annual 
import of sugar is about 20,000,000 yen. 

Cotton. — ^Japanese cotton. is another article that suffered from 
the foreign competition, especially since the growing activities in 
the spinning business. The output is decreasing, as is seen in the 


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fact that in 1897 it was 60,479,195 pounds and in 1900 36,999,851 
pounds. As the consequence the importation of the article is 
increasing, which is seen in the following table: 

1870 628,308 yen 

1880 170,639 yen 

1890 5,365,153 yen 

1895 24,822,097 yen 

1900 ... 59,471,629 yen 

1902 79,784,781 yen 

Cotton imported from the United States is shown in the 
following figures : 

1898 14,751,200 yen 

1900 27,010,134 yen 

1902 .19,475.817 yen 

British India furnis?ies Japan about 35,000,000 yens' worth of 
cotton annually. 

Hemp. — The appearance of the Chinese and the Indian hemp 
in the market has considerably affected the prospect of the hemp 
industry in Japan. The country's annual output of hemp is at 
present about 24,843,000 pounds. Cultivation of flax in Japan 
is very promising. 

Stalks for Straw Braids. — This is an important industry, 
as shown in the pages of the book devoted to manufactures. 

Mint and^ Ginseng. — Mint and ginseng are two of the prin- 
cipal products of Japan. 

Paper Mulberry Tree and Mitsumata (Edgeworthia Papy- 
1 if era) are extensively planted and used for manufacturing papers. 

Fruits. — Japan is not a fruit-producing country in a large 
degree, but produces a great variety of it. Excellent apples are 
grown in Hokkaido and in the northeastern part of the Honshyu. 
Oranges are produced in Kyushyu and other warmer localities. 

Flowers and Garden Plants. — Naturally and traditionally 
the Japanese are fond of flowers and plants. They spare neither 
pains nor money in decorating even miniature gardens with 
fantastic rocks and well-shaped trees and plants. The Japanese 
are taking great care in the cultivation of the chrysanthemum, 
peony, morning glory, etc. 

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Sericulture. — The raising of silkworms has been an art of 
the Japanese since the "age of the gods." Today it constitutes 
\ one of the country's resources. The following table shows the 
condition of the industry in 1901 : 

Number of silkworm-raising family 2,475,819 

Number of egg-cards manufactured 3,856,783 

Cocoons raised, bushels 1,250,818 

Raw silk manufacturers 421,941 

Raw silk output, pounds 14,639,099 , 

Raw silk exported in pounds 11,524,490 

The silkworm is fed with mulberry tree leaves. There was in 
, 1901 743,673 acres of mulberry field. The worms are raised 
three times a year, spring, summer and autumn. In 1901 the 
spring output was 8,993,360 bushels ; the summer output 1,728,085 
bushels, and the autumn output 1,^09,460 bushels. About 2,500,000 
bushels of cocoons are annually imported from China. 

Filature. — Formerly the reeling of raw silk was carried on as 
a subsidiary business by peasants. The method employed was 
that of hand reeling. As soon as the government built a model 
filature at Tomioka, the factory system with the machineries began 
to extend throughout the country. In 1902 there were 3,710 reel- 
ing factories and 410,801 houses of hand reeling. 

The recent general rise in the price of commodities and 
wages, especially after the Chino-Japanese war, increased the 
cost .of the silk production. The average cost of the production 
of 100 kin, or 132.5 pounds, of silk was 90 yen in 1893, which 
increased to 143 yen in 1900. The export of the silk is increasing 
yearly, which is seen in the following table: 

1869 5,720,182 yen 

1880 : . . . 6,606,867 yen 

1890 13,859,339 yen 

1900 44,657,029 yen 

1901 • 74,667,331 yen 

1902 79,784,781 yen 

\ The United States is the largest buyer of Japanese silk, im- 
\ porting over 80 per cent of the whole amount Japan exports. 
JNext comes France and Italy. 

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36 ' ' ^ 

Tea Manufacturing. — The tea plant was first planted in 
♦ Japan in about 805 A. D. It came from China. Only two kinds 
I of tea were at the "beginning produced in Japan; these were 
pounded tea and pan-fried tea. In 1738 a new method of curling 
was invented, which produced so-called green tea. The method 
consists in first steaming the leaves and rolling them, and then dry- 
ing them by fire in such way as to preserve the natural green color, 
The Gyokuro tea, which was obtained from the green tea, was 
first manufactured in 1835. The black tea is the latest innovation, 
having been introduced about twenty years ago. The process 
of manufacturing and refining has been simplified by the in- 
vention of machines, among which are those invented by Harazaki, 
Takabayashi, Mochizuki and Oishi. The government has estab- 
lished an experimental tea manufactory at Tokyo in 1898. 

The cultivation of the tea plant has recently declined, owing 
to the increase in the cost of the production and the appearance 
of rivals in foreign markets. It has decreased from 71,209,475 
pounds in 1891 to 65,238,432 pounds in 1900. Consequently, the 
export has decreased accordingly. The output in 1902 was 
77,561,100 pounds. The government granted in 1897 an annual 
subsidy of 70,000 yen to the Central Tea Manufacturers and 
Traders* Association for foreign tea trade. The term of the 
subsidy expired in March, 1904. 

Live Stocks. — There were in Japan, according to the statistics 
of 1901, 792,707 cows and 489,634 bulls, 1,533,173 horses, 54,724 
sheep, and 202,037 pigs. There were slaughtered during the year 
of 1901 190,403 cows and bulls and 106,806 pigs for food. 

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Foreisn Trade. 

TRADE between Japan and Corea and China existed at an 
early date in the history of the Empire, but this traffic was 
on a very limited scale. After the introduction of Japan to 
the western world by Marco Polo, there was some little trade 
carried on with the Netherlands and Portugal. About 1,700 
the annual imports from the Netherlands amounted in value 
to about $3,200,000 and 200 foreign ships entered the Port of 
Nagasaki. It was not, however, until Commodore Perry of 
the United States opened the ports of Japan to the world, and 
concluded commercial treaties, that Japanese foreign trade began 
to assume an important aspect. 

Since the memorable era opened by the American Commodore, 
Japan's foreign commerce has grown rapidly, as it is shown by 
the. following tables : 

Exports. Imports. Total. 

Year. Yen. Yen. Yen. 

1S6S 15,553,437 10,693,072 26,246,545 

1872 17,026,647 26,174,815 43,201,462 

1877 23,348,522 27,420,903 50,769,429 

1882 37,721,751 29,446,504 67,168,345 

1887 52,407,681 44,304,252 96,711,933 

1892 91,102,754 71,326,080 162,428,833 

1897 163,135,077 219,300,772 382,435,849 

1892 258,303,065 271,731,259 530,034,324 

The total value of the exports and imports of specie and 
bullion is shown in the following table : 

Exports. Imports. 

Year. Yen. Yen. 

1872 4,480,896 3",69i,5io 

1877 9,441,271 2,173,499 

1882 4,430,198 6,160,724 

1887 11,035,488 8,871,266 

1892 9,729,753 22,883,757 

1897 19,219,163 81,466,713 

1892 2,028,982 32,161,358 

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The large imports in 1897 are due to the proceeds of public 
bond sold abroad, and to the Chinese Indemnity. 

The following shows the total value of commodities exported 
to, and imported from, various foreign countries during 1902: 

Exports. Imports. Total. 

Asia. Yen. Yen. Yen. 

China 46,838,544.790 40,590,858.300 87.429,403.090 

British India 5,067,262.760 49,302,846.040 54,370,108.800 

Hong Kong 25,876,058.880 2,454,881.370 26,330,940.250 

Corea 10,554,182.560 7,957,946.270 18,512,128.830 

British Straits Set- 
tlement 8,269,6:^2.670 1,674,322.180 9»943,954-85o 

Russian Asia 2,144,961.430 5,963,857.650 8,108,819.080 

Anam and other 

French India... 158,410.710 5,649,945.640 5^808,356.350 

Dutch India 570,634.110 3,568,719.160 4»i39,353-27o 

Philippine Islands. 1,731,738.970 1,493,865.120 3,225,604.090 

Siam 56,347450 i>695,779.470 1,752,126.920 

Total 101,267,774.330 120,353,021.200 221,620,795.530 


Great Britain 17,346,149.270 50,364,029.320 67,710,178.590 

France 27,283,457.860 4,745,775.660 32,029,233.520 

Germany 4,737,029.200 25,812,921.340 30,549,950-540 

Italy 13,287,556.010 186,812.910 13,474,368.920 

Belgium 600,497.230 6,977,655.540 7,578,152.770 

Austria-Hungary.. 1,143,309.480 2,376,655.960 3,519,965.440 

Switzerland 755,916.170 1,951,046.840 2,706,963.010 

Holland 745,249.080 772,665.660 1,517,914.740 

Russia 968,936.770 103,113.690 1,072,050.660 

Sweden and Nor- 
way 6,385.310 441,204.240 447,589550 

Spain 83,266,870 154,286.390 237,553.260 

Turkey 41,859.670 1,189.300 43,049.170 

Denmark 20,102.050 18,069.350 38,171.400 

Portugal 11,064.370 11,064.370 

Total 67,019,715.170 93.916,490.770 160,936,205.940 

39 Digitized by CjOOQIC 

Exports. Imports. Total. 

America. Yen. Yen. Yen. 
United States of 

America 80,232,805.160 48,652,824.930 128,885,630.090 

Canada and other 

British America. 3,485,841.060 517,274.080 4,003,115.140 

Mexico 101,603.740 1,879.060 103,482.600 

Peru 2,391.500 2,391.500 

Total 83,822,641.460 49,171,978.070 I32,994»6i9.530 

All other. 

Australia 3,172,092.410 1,672,218.340 4,844,310.750 

Egypt 449,304.810 2,418,261.950 2,867,566.760 

Hawaii 1,833,293.310 22,723.700 1,856,017.010 

Total 5,454»690.530 4,113,203.990 9,567,894.520 

Other countries. .. 344,814.270 3,485,404.830 3,830,219.100 

Unknown 393,429.110 691,159.690 1,084,556.800 

Grand total. . .258,303,064.870 271,731,258.550 530,034,323420 

Principal £»xports. 

The following table shows the principal exports of Japan in 

1901 and 1902: igoi J902. 

Articles exported. Yefn. Yen. 

Tea, green (pan fire) 5.099,323 6,203,580 

Tea, green (basket fire) 2,720,175 3,622,121 

Tea, black 622,838 176,881 

Tea, brick 110,040 197,840 

Tea, dust 178,658 207,167 

Rice 6,908,913 6,679,544 

Fish, cod 175,666 114,677 

Fish, cuttle 1,842,249 1,802,415 

Iriko or beche de mer 436,142 353,498 

Aga-aga 1,217,195 1,108,544 

Salt 303,627 348,626 

Sea-weed 1,092,923 609,143 

Sea-weed, cut 325,404 200,344 

Sharks' fins I44.i5i 155,205 

Shellfish, awabi 483,363 513,074 

40 Digit zed by Google 

1901. 1902. 

Articles exported. Yen. Yen. 

Shellfish, kaibashira 204,198 310,562 

Shrimps 339,653 326,091 

Beer 863.603 505,832 

Ginger, dried 125,467 3^7,644 

Peanuts 404,937 358,604 

Mineral waters 227,922 330,i55 

Mushroom, Shiitake 860,671 866,499 

Potatoes 203.356 158,717 

Sake 790,796 831,432 

Shoyu (soy) 279,263 390,465 

Can goods 229,422 272,384 

Buttons, brass 162,029 I37>i54 

Buttons, other kinds I34,900 234,711 

Cotton shirts' 234,760 156,796 

Cotton, underwear 265,362 324,430 

European clothing 299,024 504,150 

Hakimono (Japanese shoes) I33,i72 172,170 

Boots and shoes 179,859 130,479 

Silk dresses 63,967 158,692 

Camphor 3,904,974 3,404,833 

Camphor oil 239,933 92,488 

Gall nuts 41,854 58,433 

Ginseng 452,924 369,508 

Menthol crystals 437»o5i 463,719 

Peppermint oil 108,237 164,847 

Sulphur 661,879 759,083 

Antimony 78,491 271,612 

Bronze, manufactured 226,791 326,309 

Copper, crude and refined 13,964,610 10,261,984 

Copper sheet I33,073 234,587 

Gold and silverware 98,824 181,340 

Iron, manufactured 368,490 437,296 

Oil, fish 1,023,631 1,502,603 

Wax, vegetable 610,371 789,875 

Paper, European 251,898 240,945 

Paper, torinoko 41,982 156,775 

41 Digitized by Google 

1901. 1202. 

Articles exported. Yen. Yen. 

Paper, usuyo 328,325 283,257 

Paper napkins I53,75i 188,296 

Paper, manufactured 300,974 308,768 

Feathers 92,303 81,171 

Furs 580,158 • 516,187 

Hides and skins (undressed) 39,867 '63,823 

Leather 70705 180,741 

Shells, awabi 100,405 159,767 

Silk, raw 74,667,331 76,859,978 

Silk, noshi 995,407 1,694,272 

Silk waste 3,473,362 4,019,524 

Silk tissues, habutai 23,912,356 24,685,408 

Silk tissues, kaiki 1,315,780 2,672,867 

Silk tissues, others 399,204 519,847 

Silk handkerchiefs 3-951,192 3,154,237 

Cotton * 308,908 282,671 

Cotton yarns 21,465,573 19,901,522 

Cotton blankets 265.754 225,392 

Cotton flannels 512,448 548,787 

Cotton tissues, chijimi 380,005 351,806 

Cotton tissues, gasuitoori 100,669 49,942 

Cotton tissues, tenuguyi 183,488 209,486 

Cotton tissues, white 1.357,588 1,079,906 

Cotton tissues, gray shirtings 1,347,605 1,523,061 

Cotton tissues, cloth 823,900 1,134,507 

Cotton tissues, others 756,269 1,089,049 

Towels 509,785 686,233 

Carpets, hemp, cotton or wool 707,770 653,330 

Cigarettes 1,683,320 2,188,594 

Bamboo 386,385 304,285 

Cement, Portland 245,082 308,350 

Coal 17,542,273 17,270,417 

Lily bulbs 226,178 238,987 

Manganese 187,177 52,539 

Rags 19,077 ' 643 

Rope, bags and straw mats 431,578 473,249 

42 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

1901. 1902. 

Articles exported. Yen. Yen. 

Lumber for tea boxes 270,419 413,118 

Match sticks .• 189,503 175,286 

Railway ties 488,845 522,255 

Timber, lumber, boards and planks, etc. 630,770 618,656 

Bamboo baskets 137,732 185,904 

Bamboo blinds 102,735 68,850 

Bamboo,, manufactured 296,059 173,309 

Tooth brushes 282,152 477,154 

Brushes, other kinis 174.891 149,174 

Clocks, hanging and standing 282,641 * 256,393 

Corals, native and manufactured 564,625 • 436,146 

Cordages and ropes of hemp, flax and 

jute 139,266 164.334 

Cotton gins 173,813 246,259 

Fans 733,432 727,458 

Furniture :•••; • 210,334 199,826 

Mirrors. 248,236 399,629 

Glass, manufactured 394,935 439,7oo 

Ivory, carved 181,290 213,886 

Jinrikisha 234,623 198,089 

Lacquered wares 994,654 889,079 

Lamps and parts thereof 407,333 488,970 

Leather, manufactured 286,793 314,412 

Matches 7,392,869 8,169,966 

Matting for floors, hanagoza 5,302.341 6,719,073 

Porcelain an4. earthenware 2,491,668 2,461,544 

Shippoki 250,716 183,537 

Screens 407,989 433^7^^ 

Soap toilet 21 1,852 • 172,150 

Straw plaits 2,989,836 2,938,858 

Toys 346,944 385,760 

Umbrellas, European 1,023,638 1,037,926 

Wood chip braids 244,238 464;390 

Wood shaving 65,451 378,431 

Wood, manufacture of 243,61 1 . - 269,181 

Grand total 252,349,543 258,303,065 

AQ Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Principal Imports* 

The following table shows the principal imports during 1901 
and 1902: 

1901. 1902. 

Articles. Yen. Yen. 

Electric light appliances 590,735 512,566 

Electric motors 388,716 810,989 

Fire engines and pumps 281,576 209,738 

Lifting machines 979,890 319,735 

Locomotives 1,749,408 1,708,014 

Drilling and boring machinery 379, loi 185,247 

Turning lathes 709,105 473,084 

Machine tools 682,341 561,100 

Spinning machinery 1,279,195 700,874 

Paper-making machinery 379,354 224,052 

Steam boilers and engines 1,095,906 905,253 

Telephones 164,738 194,825 

Weaving machinery 420,797 94>528 

Watches (all kinds) 43^,554 234,150 

Watch cases (all kinds) 335.891 233,949 

Watch movements 426,243 259,499 

Condensed milk 641,526 863,945 

Eggs 1,298,611 1,196,455 

Flour 2,873,302 3,278,324 

Salted salmon and trout 1,404,828 2,011,487 

Hats, caps and bonnets 341,119 232,863 

Phosphorus, amorphous 237,778 296,087 

Chlorate of potash 585,274 785,356 

Soda ash 450,224 519,089 

Caustic soda 468,568 787,972 

Aniline dyes 884,884 1,653,220 

Indigo 2,665,043 3,097,981 

Logwood extract I79,32i 363,026 

Paint in oil 311,253 261,317 

Window glass 1,084,833 1,581,071 

Beans, soja 5J77,36o 4-956,009 

Beans, peas and pulse 150,776 830,698 

Rice 11,878,958 17,750,617 

44 Digitized by Google 

1901. 1902. 

Articles . Yen . Yen . 

Cotton seed 57i,720 787,668 

Seeds, sesame 284,785 426,753 

Wheat 272,869 240,050 

Hides or skins bull, ox, cow and buflfalo 786,609 813,834 

Leather, sole 590,713 53i»392 

Leather, other kinds 756,774 814,707 

Iron, pig and ingot i,593,3ii 982,326 

Iron, bar and rod 3»5ii»756 3,519,126 

Rails 1,612,540 1,662,700 

Fittings of rails 334,56i 383,041 

Iron, plate and sheet 3»293»304 4,399,747 

Other kinds of manufactured iron 1,070,833 932,071 

Iron pipe and tubes 1,591,680 1,073,638 

Iron nails 1,364,668 1,451,125 

Tinned Plate and sheet 884,310 797,089 

Iron wire and small rods 332,751 279,399 

Telegraph wire 683,658 799,983 

Material for bridges and buildings 1,481,153 341,797 

Steel, other than mild steel 694,836 660,202 

Lead, pig, ingot and sheet 876,228 510,713 

Tin, block, ingot and sheet 530,243 501,008 

Zinc, block, ingot and sheet 230,559 255,001 

Zinc, sheet (No. 2) 509,504 781,867 

Oil, kerosene, in cans 12,828,919 12,669,392 

Oil, kerosene, other kinds 2,114,482 2,267,778 

Lubricating oil 308,380 324,651 

Paraffine wax 449,075 452,930 

Card board 330,579 35i,8o6 

Paper, glazed and fancy 166,145 317,608 

Paper, imitation Japanese writing 277,123 198,037 

Paper, imitation Japanese 43,934 317,633 

Paper, packing 196,497 85,909 

Paper, printing 864,041 1,402,862 

Sugar (other than refined sugar) 12,381,466 8,878,657 

Sugar, refined 21,111,901 5,589,157 

Cotton, raw, ginned 59,799,300 78,799,858 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

Articles. Yen. 

Cotton, raw and seed 851,062 

Cotton yarns 4,873,738 

Cotton thread 344,524 

Cotton flannels 234,672 

Cotton prints 680,468 

Cotton satin and Italians 1,684,497 

Cotton velvets 453,531 

Shirtings, gray 2,991,651 

Shirtings^ white 575,743 

Shirting, twilled 49,86i 

Turkey-red cambrics \ 189,127 

Umbrella cloths ^ 1,086,066 

Wool 3,127,760 

Woollen and worsted yarns 866,760 

Flannels 313,297 

Flannels, cotton mixed 251,342 

Italian cloths 601,439 

Mousseline de laine (all kinds) 3,339, 121 

Serges 376,377 

Woollen and worsted cloth 1,318,162 

Woollen and worsted cloths, cotton 

mixed 901,395 

Cocoons 342,593 

Tussah silk yarns 433,184 

Plush or velvets, silk and cotton 379,402 

Flax, hemp, jute and china grass 1,370,183 

Flax and linen yarns 100,831 

Blankets *. 78,096 

Cotton handkerchiefs 107,126 

Leaf tobacco 30^272 

Celluloid 383,517 

Coal 2,542,133 

Coke 157,966 

Iron ore i 525,261 

Malt 765.634 

Sulphate of ammonia 255,472 

iff Digitized 












. 242,333 











■ 349,967 

by Google 

1901. 190 \ 

Articles. Yen. Yen. 

Bone, animal (for manure) 257,147 355»970 

Oil cake, beans 6,207,153 8,003,315 

Oil cake, fish 1,177,719 1,451,361 

Oil cake, other kinds 731,036 667,036 

Phosphate manure 437,9ii 603,645 

Nitfate of soda 183,857 216,529 

Pulp 205,590 365,058 

Timber, teak 241,743 382,222 

Timber, other varieties 467,506 373ii4i 

Belting and hose for machinery 261,371 308,436 

Manufactured caoutchouc 162,879 223,941 

Bicycles and tricycles 540,215 856,949 

Freight cars 793,487 695,996 

Passenger cars 1 12,757 128,800 

Corks and cork bark 258,419 143,419 

Electric light wire 131,172 308,163 

Packing mats 241,786 359,256 

Submarine telegraphic cables and un- 
derground telegraphic lines 498,401 85,431 

Telephone wire 297,645 . 365,724 

Grand total 255,816,645 271,731,259 

Trade Between the United States and Japan. 

The follQwing table shows the growth of trade with the 
United States during the last thirty years : 

Year. Yen. Yen 

1873 4,226,162 . 1,017,761 

1874. . . •• 7,464,877 1.047,250 

1875 > . . 6,890,132 1,920,346 

1876 5,797,825 1,124,882 

1877 5,232,322 1,736,781 

1878 5,845,068 2,727,585 

1879 10,879,053 3,212,273 

1880 12,041,151 ' 2,669,334 

1881 1 1,087,556 1,816,200 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

Year. Yen. Yen. 

1882 14,280,199 3»i33»666 , 

1883 13,293759 3,233,032 

1884 13,130,924 2,489,970 

1885 • • • 15,639,005 2,751,321 

1886 19,992,429 3,358,987 

1887 21,529,267 3,283,096 

1888 22,618,483 5,648,734 

1889 25,282,874 6,143,171 

1890 19,821,438 6,874,532 

1891 29,795,755 6,840,048 

1892 38,674,971 5,988,054 

1893 • • . .27,739,458 6,090,408 

1894 43,323,557 10,982,558 

1895 57,028,950 9,276,360 

1896 31,532.341 16,373,420 

1897 52,436,404 27,030,538 

1898. 47,311,155 40,001,098 

T899 63,919,270 38,215,894 

1900 52,566,395 62,761,196 

1901 72,309,359 42,769,430 

1902 86,232,805 48,658,825 

The following table shows the principal exports to the United 
States in 1901 and 1902: 

1901. 1902. 

Yen. Yen. 

Tea, green (pan fire) 3,997,569 5,668,557 

Tea, green (basket fire) 2,076,581 3,089,818 

Tea, black 617,098 167,669 

Tea, ground : 97,626 167,023 

Rice 775,808 577,888 

Cuttlefish 4,884 2.073 

Kanten and colle (vegetable) 13,850 42,428 

Shellfish, awabi 26,202 . 20,967 

Ginger, dried 37 84,487 

Groundnuts 26,031 86,599 

Mushrooms, Shiitake 42,945 42,452 

Sake 45,878 70,460 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

48 ^ 

Yen. Yen. 

1901. 1902. 

Soy 48,009 68,695 

Canned goods 13,426 45,6i7 

Cotton shirts 1,782 728 

Hakimono 1,522 3,221 

Silk dresses 16,217 59,980 

Camphor 810,420 811,007 

Camphor oil 98,325 47,496 

Gall nuts 8,294 5,999 

Menthol crystals 111,129 126,525 

Peppermint oil 12,309* 

Sulphur 495,141 474,6j9 

Antimony 24,070 93,539 

Manufactured bronze 83,173 149,986 

Copper, crude and refined 150 280,380 

Gold and silverwares 8,547 28,258 

Iron, manufactured 786 4,276 

Wax, vegetable 67,944 144,443 

Paper, European 27,884 2,002 

Paper, torinoko 2,208 74,079 

Paper, usuyo 156,489 220,580 

Paper napkins '77,'22,'2 81,975 

Paper manufacture 49,224 39,215 

Feathers 151 2,294 

Furs 5,230 1,130 

Hides or skins, undressed 120 3,457 

Leather 325 19,170 

Shells, awabi 3,321 525 

Silk, raw 46,784,721 44,497,255 

Silk, noshi 4,128 ii,37o 

Silk, waste 78,374 214,660 

Silk tissue, habutai 4,859,761 5,468,764 

Silk tissues, Kaiki 956,247 1,889,244 

Silk tissues, other kinds 9,903 115,097 

Silk handkerchiefs 1,747,183 1,224,771 

Cotton tissues, chijimi 19,190 33,259 

Cotton tissues, other kinds 4,171 ^ 2,948 

* Digitized by CjOOQIC 

49 . "^ 

1901. 1902. 

Yen. Yen. 

Carpets, hemp, cotton or wool 171,682 221,395 

Bamboo 98,484 104,309 

Cement, Portland 22 4,150 

Coal ^ 102,387 191,551 

Lily bulbs 80,471 95,173 

Manganese 93,274 20,561 

Bamboo baskets ^ 55,148 48,931 

Bamboo blinds 35,623 18,333 

Bamboo, manufactured I ^ 47,678 39,774 

Tooth brushes 243,525 385,052 

Brushes, others 146,076 106,029 

Fans 300,260 275, 126 

Furniture 17.568 35,733 

Glass, manufactured 1,290 . , 1,254 

Ivory, carved 38,450 56,181 

- Lacquered wares 75,i6i 59,96i 

Lamps 5,698 11,179 

Leather, manufactured 985 4,126 

Matches • 2,500 547 

Matting 5,064,663 6,381,733 

Porcelain and earthenwares 1,027,141 913,396 

Shippoki 94,480 71,799 

Screens 77,497 73,^74 

Straw plaits 829,163 808,414 

Toys 88,103 107,284 

Umbrellas, European 1,800 2,191 

Wood chip braids 224,602 318,958 

Wood shaving 6,033 " 6,752 

Wood, manufactured 53,o86 76,595 

Total 72,309:359 80,232,805 

The following table shows the principal imports from the 
United States in 1901 and 1902: 

Yen. Yen. 

Electric light appliances 375,521 423,535 

Electric motors 231,086 682,389 

Digitized by CjOOQLC 

50 ^ 

1901. 1902. 

Yen. Yen. 

Fire engines and pumps 148,293 104,421 

Lifting machines 162,941 33,700 

Locomotives 783.356 569,271 

Drilling and boring machines 43,452 40,999 

Turning lathes 33,623 55,96i 

Machine tools 1 19,091 1 14,690 

Machinery, paper-making 251,942 104,888 

Machinery, spinning 7,002 2,252 

Steam boilers and engines 364,086 448,883 

Telephones ' 45,044 99,95i 

Weaving machinery ' .* 310,788 6,578 

Watches (all kinds) .^ 20,314 5,562 

Watch cases 149.991 144.867 

Watch movements 140,576 133,129 

Condensed milk 246,359 358,588 

Flour 2,786,552 3,243,775 

Salted salmon and trout 122,551 202,659 

Hats, caps and bonnets 5.325 1,218 

Soda, ash 57,292 53,182 

Soda, caustic Z'^yJI^ 10 

Indigo, drx * 14,340 61,792 

Logwood extract 705 4,328 

Oil paints 935 4,445 

Window glass 5,099 1,418 

Beans, peas and pulse 1,563 2,405 

Wheat 43,720 43 

Hides or skins bull, ox, cow and buflfalo 25,515 41,732 

.Leather, sole 461,925 439,470 

Leather, other kinds 79,480 117,258 

Iron, pig and ingot ' 2,950 • 

Iron, bar and rod. . *>. ", 86,998 6,805 

Rails r. . 997,826 6,928 

Fittings for rails 229,850 38,534 

Iron, plates and sheets 190,101 47,i47 

Iron, manufactured 312,616 , 117,611 

Iron pipes and tubes 526,866 340,056 



by Google 

1901. 1902. 

Yen. Yen. 

Iron nails 668,490 424,906 

Tin plate, iron wire and small rod 4,402 7 

Telegraph wire ." 52,190 31,880 

Material for bridges and buildings 497.781 183,625 

Steel, other than welded steel. ., 75,375 3.841 

Lead, pig, ingot and sheet 212,926 558,124 

Zinc, block, ingot and sheet 9,9i8 7,347 

Oil, kerosene, in cans 11,778,381 12,083,711 

Oil, kerosene, other I3,744 10,404 

Oil, lubricating 319,453 278,627 

Paraffine wax 392,490 375,403 

Cardboard 307,513 320,630 

Paper, glazed and fancy 939 157 

Paper, packing 6,304 3,455 

Paper, printing 152,127 180,164 

Sugar, refined ! 14,364 14,052 

Cotton, raw, ginned 12,986,748 19,475,817 

Cotton satins and italians 2,090 

Shirting, gray 5,977 . 34,i20 

Wool 2,467 

Tobacco, leaf 953,^37 30,017 

Celluloid 41,755 38,681 

Coal 86,285 376,548 

Malt 8,313 3,101 

Oil cake, fish 2,518 

Phosphatic manure 76,478 90,718 

Soda, nitrate of 5,083 24,010 

Pulp 18,740 17,222 

Timber, teak 6,031 3 

Timber, santalum and lumber and 

planks 274,889 156,883 

Belting and hose for machinery 38,512 54, 160 

Caoutchouc, manufactured 10,383 • 25,902 

Bicycles and tricycles 526,957 815,431 

Railway passengers 9,5^0 25,395 

Railway freight * 59,793 121,794 

e-n Digitized by CjOOQLC 

1901. 1902. 

Yen. Yen. 

Electric light wirei 84.765 171,089 

Submarine telegraphic cables and un- 
derground telegraphic lines 132,573 14,252 

Telephone wire 34,964 104,892 

Total 42,769,430 48,652,830 

Tariff System. 

ACCORDING to the terms of the tariff agreement entered 
into by Japan and Great Britain, France, the United States 
and Holland in 1867, the rate of import and export duties was 
fixed on a basis of 5 per cent ad valorem. The new tariff 
system, which went into effect in 1897, divides the imports into 
three main classes: dutiable goods, non-dutiable goods and pro- 
hibited goods. The tariff for dutiable goods ranges from 5 
to 40 per cent ad valorem, divided into sixteen grades. The 
schedule has a standard rate, so to say, of 20 per cent, for 
ordinary refined goods. This rate increases on one side and 
decreases on the other. Natural produce, scientific instruments 
and apparatus, raw material, and articles of ordinary consumption 
take the decreasing scale, while articles of luxury, such as liquors 
and tobacco, take the increasing scale. In 1899 the tariff for 
alcohol was raised to 250 per cent for all Chinese liquors, and for 
other kinds of liquors not mentioned in the list, the tariff was 
raised to from 80 to 100 per cent. ^. the same year duty was 
abolished on raw materials required by the State monopolies and 
match making. In 1899 the rate on tobacco was advanced to 
100 per cent and again in 1901 to 150 per cent. 

Commercial Bodies. 

Chamber of Commerce. — There are fifty-eight commercial 
bodies in Japan discharging the functions of regular Chambers 
of Commerce. Besides these, Japanese subjects residing in 

53 Digitized by Google 

Korea have their own Chamber of Commerce at Seoul, Fusan, 
Mukpho, Gensen and Chamelpo. 

The Higher Council of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry 
was established in 1896 to devise measures for encouraging foreign 
trade. The Council is composed of thirty officials of the De- 
partments of Agriculture and Commerce, Foreijgn Affairs, Finance, 
and Transportation and Communication, and business men of 

Industrial Guilds. — In 190D there were 529 Commercial Guilds ; 
433 Industrial Guilds and 187 Commercial and Industrial Guilds 
in Japan. 

Commercial Museums. — There are two Commercial Museums, 
one located in Tokyo, the other in Osaka. The former is under 
the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture and Commerce, 
and contains principally domestic produce. This museum is in- 
tended for the foreigners. The Osaka Museum is the most 
important institution and is aggressive and active in the field. 
It contains copious samples of foreign goods, for the instruction 
of Japanese manufacturers and traders, and to encourage them to 
compete in foreign markets. The museum is supported by the 
City of Osaka. Besides these, there are many private museums 
maintained by the merchants in Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe and 
Kyoto. There are, today, seven official Japanese museums in 
foreign cities. These are located in Shasi, Hanghow, Chunking, 
Bombay, Newchwang, Singapore and Bangkok. In addition there 
are private Japanese musemus which have State aid in Ping- Yang- 
Hong at Fuchow, Shanghai and Constantinople. 

The Department of Agriculture and Commerce is sending 
every year a large number of capable young men abroad to have 
practical training either at commercial establishments or in fac- 
tories. There are now over one hundred students, thirty-five 
of whom are in the United States. 

Industrial reports are regularly published by the Department 
of Agriculture and Commerce, and Consul reports by the De- 
partment of Foreign Affairs. 

54 Digitized by Google 


The following is a table of the revenue and expenditures of 
Japan for certain years from 1868 to 1903 : 

Revenue. Expenditure. 

Yen. Yen. 

1868 33,089,313 30,505,086 

1672 50,445,173 57,730,025 

1877 52,388,133 48,428,325 

1882 73,508,427 73,480,667 

1887 88,161,074 79,453,036 

1892 101,461,911 76,734,740 

1897 226,390,123 223,678,844 

1902 ;282,432,964 28i,753,i95 

1903 • 251,681,961 244,752,346 

The following is a summary of the budget estimates for the 
year ending March 31, 1904, compared with the previous year: 

Revenue— Ordinary Taxes. 

1902-3. 1903-4- 

Yen. Yen. 

Land tax ' 46,845,971 46,996,212 

Income tax 6,109,809 7,412,801 

Business tax 6,604,003 6,792,818 

Tax on sake 63,805,207 66,535,404 

Tax on soy 3,328,499 3,444,034 

Customs duties 17,045,611 16,570,655 

Sugar excise. 6,077,005 7,184,637 

Other inland taxes 3,614,436 3,552,083 

Total tax I53,430,54i 158,488,644 

Stamp, receipts 14.304,951 13,532,121 

Receipts From Government. 
UndertaKings and State Property. 

1902-3. 1903-4- 
Yen. Yen. 

Postal and telegraph services 25,856,730 25,915,940 

Railway profits 8,817,510 8,785,089 

Leaf tobacco monopoly profit 11,728,526 12,606,012 

°5 Digitized by Google 

1902-3 1903-4 

Yen. Yen. 

Forests 2,914,387 2,955,361 

Miscellaneous 2,504,150 2,477,120 

Interests on deposits transferred 3,309,805 3,309,805 

Transferred from fund for redemp- 
tion of Formosan public works 

loans 1,000,303 1,350,000 

Transferred from education fund . . . 500,000 500,000 

Miscellaneous receipts 1,747,710 1,882,407 

Total ordinary revenue 226,114,613 231,802,499 


Proceeds from State property sold. . 1,111,125 894,375 
Local contribution to expenses irf- 

curred by the State for the benefit 

of certain prefectures 1,197,141 1,076,800 

Receipts from the issue of public 

loan 6,740,000 * 7,427,683 

Chinese indemnity transferred 8,065,856 3,574,717 

Forestry fund transferred 2,145,904 2,145,904 

Other miscellaneous receipts 37,058,325 4,759,983 

56,318,351 19,879,462 

Grand total 282,432,964 251,681,961 

Expenditure— Ordinary. 

Imperial household 3,000,000 3,000,000 

Foreign affairs 2,284,270 2,284,160 

Home affairs 10,563,417 10,627,469 

Army 38,432,317 38,495,727 

Navy 21,349,054 22,077,695 

Justice 10,837,646 10,563,532 

Education 4,845,708 4,994,286 

Agriculture and commerce 2,948,913 2,943,949 

Communication 21,172,977 21,606,676 


National debt charges 43,585,183 42,402,101 

Other various expenses 18,557,481 19,468,526 

Ordinary total 177,596,966 178,461,121 



by Google 


1902-3 1903-4 

Yen. Yen. 

Foreign affairs 92,724 108,765 

Home affairs 17,065,028 16,708,430 

Finance 41,550,611 5,123^51 

Army 8,262,789 3,671,241 

Navy 7,076,586 7,118,575 

Justice 565,640 543,907 

Education 2,045,156 1,665,080 

Agriculture and commerce 4,049,070 7,469,752 

Communication 23,448,625 23,873,524 

Total 104,156,229 66,288,225 

Grand total 281,753,195 244,752,346 

Note. — Owing to the dissolution of the Diet, the budget for 
1903-4 has not passed the Diet, the budget for 1902-3 to be carried 
for 1903-4- 

Formosan Finances. 

Formosa, which was ceded by China April 28th, 1895, to Japan 
by the Shimonoseki treaty, was placed under military administra- 
tion from that time until the end of March, 1896, and all expenses 
for the administration were defrayed as a part of the military 
expenditure. From April i, 1896, to the end of March, 1897, the 
finances of the island were included in the general account of the 
central treasury. From the next fiscal year the Formosan finances 
were set apart as a special account with the object of making the 
island self-supporting in time. In the first year of the civil ad- 
ministration the State treasury had to subsidise yearly a sum 
of from 6,000,000 yen to 9,000,000 yen, but at present this is re- 
duced to about 2,400,000 yen, while the ordinary revenue of the 
island has increased in the same period from about 2,000,000 
yen to 13,000,000 yen. 

The following are the financial statistics of the island: 


Ordinary. Extraordinary. Total. 

Yen. Yen. Yen. 

1896 2,714,822 4,457 2,716,297 

1897 5,315,880 5,967,386 11,283,206 

^'^ Digitized by Google 

, Ordinary. Extraordinary. Total. 

Yen. Yen. Yen. 

1898 7,493,650 4,788,311 12,281,961 

1899 10,165,652 7,267,966 I7,433,6i« 

1900 11,062,527 207,174 . 20,269,701 

1901 11,714,648 8,051,686 19,766,334 

1902 12,650,695 7^205,319 19,856,014 

1903 12,738,587 7.213,071 19,951,658 


1896 5,913,243 3.733,232 9,646,475 

1897 7,707,894 2,779,626 10,487,610 

1898 8,008,796 3,208,391 11,217,187 

1899 12,304,735 * 6,018,810 18,323,548 

1900 10,032,410 3,442,104 3,474,514 

1901 11,837,073 7,526,683 19,363,756 

1902 13,245,073 6,610,941 19,856,014 

1903 12,245,502 5,873,684 18,119,186 

Finance of Prefectures. 

The actual revenue of prefectures "Fu and Ken" for 1901 
was 58,721,522 yen, and the expenditures amounted to 52,478,449. 
The actual revenue of cities "Shi" was 28,332,444 yen and the 
expenditures 22,112,079. For towns and villages **Cho" and 
"Son" the revenue was 70,316,610 yen and as against expenditures 
aggregating 65,300,730 yen. In the expenditures of municipalities, 
disbursements on account of education formed about one-third of 
the total. 

National Loans. 

The proceeds of loans raised by the government have been 
laid out to improve and encourage the development of economic 
. undertakings, the state having otherwise adjusted its finances. 
The only loans raised for other purposes were in connection with 
the civil war in 1864, and the Japan-China war. The total of the 
government loans in 1903 was 559,621,011 yen equal to about 12 
yen per capita. 

In detail the loan is made up as follows : 

Old public loans 4,169,636 yen 

Hereditary pension bonds, 5 per cent 19,630,475 yen 

58 ' Digitized by Google 

Navy loan, 5 per cent 8,297,300 yen 

Consolidated public loan, 5 per cent 167,128,350 yen 

Railway loans, 5 per cent 37,248,900 yen 

Railway Loan, 4 per cent i7,577,75o yen 

War loan, 5 per cent 115,641,150 yen 

Public work loan, 5 per cent 60,134,600 yen 

Public work loan, 4 per cent 78,052,250 yen 

Hokkaido railway loan, 5 per cent 3,592,500 yen 

Hokkadio railway loan, 4 per cent 2,000,000 yen 

Formosan loan, 5 per cent 16,707,900 yen 

Loan for the redemption of paper money 22,000,000 yen 

Temporary loan Formosan public work 5,440,000 yen 

Temporary loan for iron foundry fund 2,000,000 yen 

Local loans in 1902 amounted to 41,100,355 yen 

Currency System. 

The existing currency system is based on the coinage system 
formulated in 1889 and follows the gold standard. The unit of 
the coinage is 2 fun of pure gold (11.574 grains), which is called 
one yen. The ratio of gold to silver stands at i to 32,348. Gold 
coins are in three denominations, 5 yen, 10 yen and 20 yen. 
Subsidiary silver coins are in denominations, 10 sen, 20 sen, 50 
sen; subsidiary copper coins, 5 sen-nickel, i sen-copper, and 
5 rin-copper. 

The following table shows the amount of money in circulation 
in Japan Jn 1902: 

Amt. of coins m yen. Amt. of paper money. 

Gold coins 89,247,908 Gov't paper money. . 1,551,792 

Silver subsidiary 59,177,3^9 National bank notes 431,576 

Nickel subsidiary 8,782,507 Convert, bk, notes. .232,094.377 

Copper subsidiary... 9,139,390 

— Total 234,078,745 

Total 166,347,134 

Grand total 326,572,380 


National banks were first established in 1872, based on the 
principle of the National Banks of America. Within a very 

59 Digitized by Google 

few years after the establishment of the first National Bank 
the number of institutions of this kind throughout Japan num- 
bered 152. The National Bank regulations of 1863 converted 
National Banks to private banks in 1896 to 1898, so that there are 
now no more National Banks in Japan. 

Following is a table of banks doing business in 1902: 

No. of Paid Up 

Banks. Capital. 

Bank of Japan i 30,000,000 

Hypothec Bank i 3,250,000 

Japan Industrial Bank i 2,500,000 

Yokohama Specie Bank i 18,000,000 

Hokkaido G)lonization Bank i 2,100,000 

Formosan Bank i 2,500,000 

Local Hypothec Banks 46 27,657,234 

Ordinary Banks 1,841 264,530,018 

Savings Banks 431 22,412,820 

Ordinary banks doing savings bank 

business 268 6,418,31 1 


The Bank of Japan, the Hypothec Bank of Japan, the Japanese 
Industrial Bank, the Yokohama Specie Bank, the Hokkaido Colon- 
ization Bank, the Formosan Bank and the Local Hypothec Banks 
have all been established under official protection 

Nippon GinKo, or the BanK of Japan. 

Nippon Ginko, or the Bank of Japan, was opened October 10, 
1882. In 1884 it was authorized by the government, under an 
ordinance known as the Convertible Bank" Note Act, to issue 
notes which were to replace the old notes issued by the govern- 
ment and the National Bank Notes.. This act aimed at unifying 
the currency system throughout the country under control of the 
Central Institution. 

The capital of the Bank of Japan at the start was 10,000,000 
yen, one-half of which was subscribed by the government. * In 
1887 it was increased to 20,000,000 yen, and in 1895 it was further 
increased to 30,000,000 yen. The capital is full paid up. The 


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surplus at present amounts to 15,700,000 yen. The value of the 
notes outstanding, issued by the bank up to the end of 1901, was 
214,096,766 yen. The total transactions of the bank during 1901 
amounted to 10,576,136,318 yen. During the same year the de- 
posits received by the bank amounted to 1,965,848,088 yen, and 
the total loans and discounts aggregated 916,738,048 yen. 

The administrative body of the bank is composed of a 
governor, a vice-governor, four directors and three or four 
auditors. The governor and vice-governor are appointed by 
the government for a term of five years. The directors are also 
appointed by the government, one of each two candidates nomi- 
nated at the general meeting of the shareholders, for a term of 
four years. 

The head office of the bank is in Tokyo. Its building is a 
three-story structure erected at a cost of 1,150,000 yen. The 
bank of Japan has eight branch offices in the most important 
cities of the country, besides numerous agencies distributed 
throughout the Empire. 

The Yokohama Specie Bank was founded in 1880 with capital 
of 3,000,000 yen, for the purpose of furnishing financial facilities 
for the foreign trade of the country. The capital was increased 
according to the growth of transactions, and it is now 24,000,000 
yen, of which 18,000,000 are paid up. The reserve fund was 
9,837,237 yen in 1902. 

The total amount of deposits was 987,035,131 yen, and the 
loans amounted to 432,441,559 yen in 1902. The bank has 
branches, agencies and correspondents in important cities through- 
out the world. There are branch offices in San Francisco and 
New York. The Merchants' Laclede National Bank in St. Louis 
is a special agent for the bank. 

The Hypothec Bank of Japan was founded in 1896 as a 
joint stock company, with a capital of 10,000,000 yen and under 
special patronage and control of the government, for the purpose 
of furnishing long-time loans at a low rate of interest for the 
improvement and development of agriculture and industry. It 
was designed to serve as the central medium of credit for 
agricultural and industrial enterprises conducted on a large scale 
throughout the entire country, as agricultural and industrial 


Digitized byCjOOQlC 

banks in the various prefectures are destined only for local 
transactions in the same branch of business. 

The bank is authorized, when at least one-fourth of its 
capital is paid up, to issue mortgage debentures to an amount 
not exceeding ten times its paid-up capital, provided the amount 
of such debenture does not exceed the total amount of outstanding 
loans redeemable in annual installments and the debentures of 
agricultural and industrial banks in hand. These debentures 
shall be redeemed at least twice a year by means of drawings 
in proportion to the total amount of redemption of loans redeem- 
able in annual installments in the same year, and the debentures 
of agricultural and industrial banks in hand. Besides, for each 
issue of debentures, premiums of various amounts, ranging from 
five to one thousand yen, are allotted to a certain number of 
the debentures which are determined by drawings. This is the 
single exception to the general prohibition, of lotteries or any 
lottery-like system, and it is especially allowed to the Hypothec 
Bank, in order to secure many small deposits for the agricultural 
and industrial banks. 

The paid-up capital of the bank is 3,250,000 yen, and it has a 
reserve fund of 210,926 yen. The total amount of loans was 
18,560,174 yen, and debentures issued 14,240,960 yen, in 1902. 

The Local Hypothec Banks were first established in 1897, 
the number to start with being six. Now there are 46 banks of 
this kind throughout the country. Each bank has a capital of 
200,000 yen or upwards, and acts as local organ of credit for the 
same objects as the Hypothec Bank. The authorized capital for 
these 46 banks is 28,370,000 yen, of which 27,657,234 yen is paid 
up. They have a reserve fund of 1,440,714 yen. In 1892 the 
total deposits amounted to 18,275,598 yen, loans 38,418,801 yen, 
and debentures issued 2,011,530 yen. 

The Bank for the Colonisation and Exploitation in Hokkaido 
was established in 1900, for the promotion of colonizing and 
exploitation in Hokkaido, with a capital of 3,000,000 yen, 2,100,000 
paid up. 

The Bank of Taiwan (Formosa) was established in 1899 
for the purpose of promoting the economic development of the 
island of Formosa. It is a joint stock company with a capital 
of 5,000,000 yen, and is endowed with the privilege of issuing 

g2 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

bank notes convertible in silver yen against the reserve gold 
or silver coins or bullion and government bonds. Treasury 
bills, notes of the Bank of Japan and any other negotiable paper 
or commercial bills of reliable nature. Notes issued beyond this 
limit in case of emergency are subject to a tax of 5 per cent or 
more per annum. The government has subscribed 1,000,000 yen 
and the dividends accruing from the shares purchased therewith 
were added to the reserve fund of the bank for the flrst five years. 
The government has further made an advance of 2,000,000 yen in 
silver to the bank with no interest. The paid-up capital is 
2,500,000 yen. The total convertible bank notes issued in 1902 
was 3,977»349 yen. 

The Industrial Bank of Japan, which was established in 
April, 1902, is a joint stock company. As the Hypothec Banks 
are intended to furnish long and cheap loans on the security 
of immovable property, agricultural and industrial enterprises, 
especially for the former, the Industrial Bank has for its 
especial object the handling of bonds and shares of various 
kinds. It may be regarded as a kind of credit mobilier or trust 
company. The business which may be transacted by the bank 
under the law is as follows : 

(i) To make loans against the pledge of public loan bonds, 
local loan bonds, companies' debentures and shares; (2) To 
subscribe or take up public loan bonds, local loan bonds and 
companies' debentures; (3) To accept deposits of money and 
custody of valuable objects; (4) To transact various kinds of 
trust business with local loan bonds, companies* debentures and 
shares. The bank is endowed with the privilege of issuing de- 
bentures to an amount five times its paid-up capital. 


Exchanges in Japan had their beginning in transactions in 
rice. The rice exchanges are comparatively old institutions, and 
may be traced back to a period at the end of the seventeenth 
century. The income of feudal lords was derived principally 
from rice at that time. It was customary to ship the cereal to 
Osaka, Yedo and other commercial centers, where it was sold 
to rice brokers. In 1876 the Rice Exchange Law was promul- 


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gated. The terms of this law permitted of the organization of 
exchanges in the form of stock 'companies. Two years later, 
1878, stock exchanges were established at Tokyo and Osaka. A 
new stock exchange law was enacted in 1903, which applies to 
all kinds of exchanges. According to this act exchanges may 
be organized either as stock companies or corporations. Those 
in the form of corporations are composed of members who have 
received a special concession from the government to transact 
business. Those organized as stock companies must have a 
capital exceeding 100,000 yen. There were 81 exchanges in 1901, 
which had 11,370 members and shareholders, including 1,104 
brokers. Their total authorized capital was 7,734,250 yen, of 
which 6,977,571 yen were paid up. The aggregate reserve fund 
was 659,390 yen. 

Insurance Companies. 

Insurance companies conducted along the lines in vogue in 
Europe and America were first organized in Japan in 1881. They 
found favor at once and in 1901 there were 40 life insurance 
companies, having an aggregate capital of 8,705,000 yen and 
carrying insurance amounting to 195,571,087 yen, doing business 
in the Empire. Mutual life insurance companies were introduced 
into Tokyo in 1902. At the present time there is only one mutual 
company, the president of which is Count Y. Yanagizawa. There 
are 19 fire insurance companies, representing a capital of 15,820,000 
yen and carrying insurance amounting to 294,379,999 yen. In 
1900 there were three marine insurance companies, having a 
combined capital of 95500,000 yen and covering lines of insurance 
amounting to 730,619,475 yen. 

Clearing Houses. 

Though the custom of using commercial bills in trade has 
existed in Japan for many years, it was only recently that clear- 
ing houses, modeled on the western pattern, were established 
ifi the country. The Osaka Clearing House, which opened in 
December, 1679, was the pioneer of this kind of institution in 
Japan. In December of the following year this clearing house 
included 60 banks in its membership. The Tokyo Clearing House, 

g4 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

which opened for business in 1887, had associated with it 59 
banks at the close of 1902. There are four clearing houses in 
Japan besides those at Osaka and Tokyo. They are: The Kyoto 
Clearing House, the Yokohama Clearing House, the Kobe Clear- 
ing House and the Nagoya Clearing House. The latter was es- 
tablished very recently. 

The following table shows the number of bills cleared, also 
the amount, through Japanese clearing houses in 1902 : 

No. of Bills Cleared. " Amount Cleared. 

Tokyo 2,210,388 1,350,791,066 yen 

Osaka i,550,430 663,659,703 yen 

Kyoto 610,277 155,657,015 yen 

Yokohama 257,165 416,126,576 yen 

Kobe 246,906 251,656,959 yen 

Nagoya 87,884 43.083,087 yen 

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THE first railway in Japan was the one built by the govern- 
ment between Tokyo and Yokahama, a distance of i8 
miles, which was commenced in 1869 and opened for traffic in 
1871. At the present time railroads in Japan are divided into 
two classes: those owned and operated by the government, and 
those owned by private individuals: 

The following table shows the progress of railways in Japan 
up to March 31, 1903: 

Government Railways. 

Roads 12 Locomotives 472 

Total mileage i,739 Passenger cars 1,358 

Number of stations 293 Freight cars 5,815 

Private Railways. 

Number of companies 41 Locomotives 975 

Total mileage 3,842 Passenger cars 3,537 

No. of stations 927 Freight cars 15,861 

The total actual investment in the government roads from the 
beginning to the end of 1902 was 141,945,060 yen, exclusive of the 
lines in Formosa. The investment in private railways during the 
same period was 257,375,000 yen. The capital stock of the private 
railways is divided into 5,519,500 shares, which are held by 46,306 

The following table shows the volume of traffic and the 
revenue, in yen, of Japanese railways in 1902 : 

Government R.ail'ways. 


Passengers 12,206.800 

Freight 5,829,715 

Other sources 300,067 

Total 18,336,582 

Expenditures 9,066,165 

Net profit 9,270,417 

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Private Railways. 


Passengers I7»833,o70 

Freight 14,104,427 

Other sources. . .■ 3*767,174 

Total 35,707,671 

Expenditures 18,132,259 

Net profit 17,572,412 

In the same year the government railways carried 32,689,916 
passengers and the private lines 78,121,456 passengers. The total 
freight carried by the government roads was 3.317,457 tons, which 
the private lines carried 12,925,695 tons. The average fare per 
one mile is 0.9 cents. The average charge for freight is i cent 
for hauling one ton one mile. 


The fact that Japan is surrounded on all sides by water has 
given the Japanese ample opportunities to develop the art of 
navigation. Early in the fifteenth century, before Columbus dis- 
covered America, Japanese sailors are known to have penetrated 
the South Seas in search of trade with the Philippines, and to 
have frequented Chinese waters, touching at Corean and Chinese 
ports. There are well authenticated records telling of a visit to 
the east coast of Mexico by a Japanese vessel in the seventeenth 
century. A party of Japanese envoys visited Rome in the six- 
teenth century. The envoys were strongly impressed with what 
they saw, and upon their return to Japan told in glowing language 
of their adventures and of the great powers and strength of 
foreign nations. These accounts caused fear on the part of the 
feudal government of invasion by some foreign power. Toku- 
gawa's feudal government, then reigning in Japan in the name of 
the Emperor, thought it wise to prevent Japanese going abroad, 
and issued an edict prohibiting the building of vessels in which 
seamen might venture on distant voyages. This order was so 
strictly enforced that it resulted in suppressing the sea-faring 
spirit for a long period of years. Since the restoration of sover- 
eignity to the Emperor, which occurred thirty-seven years ago, 

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navigation and foreign commerce have been fully restored. Much 
encouragement has been given to seamen by the government, with 
the result that in 1902 Japan had the following vessels: 

Number. Tonnage. 

Steamers 1,441 609,951 

Sailing ships 3,977 334,509 

Japanese junks i8,743 235,195 

Small ships under five tons 627,611 

These figures include 20 steel-built steamers of more than 5,000 
tons' displacement each. 

The following are shipping statistics of the ports of Japan, not 
including those of Formosa, and the vessels for coasting trade in 
1902 : 

Entered. Cleared. 

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage 

Japanese steamships 3,226 4,309,164 3,239 4,324,213 

Foreign steamships 2,985 7,090,249 2,979 7»097,378 

6,2ij 11,399,413 6,218 , 11,421,591 

Japanese sailing ships.'. . 733 64,408 . 768 67,341 

Foreign sailing ships... 88 102,779 92 107,951 

Japanese junks 732 7,846 774 8,190 

1,553 175,033 1,634 183,482 

Grand total 7,764 11,574,446 7,852 11,605,073 

In 1902 there were 15,977 Japanese captains and engineers 
and 333 foreign captains and engineers serving in the Japanese 
merchant marine. 

The Japanese Government is giving subsidies to the shipping 
business. A subsidy is granted on steamers that come up to the 
standard specified in the provisions of the Subsidy Law. The 
steamers that are qualified to receive such aid must carry on 
regular service between Japan and foreign ports or along the 
coast of a foreign country. The subsidy is given at the rate of 
12^2 cents per ton for every 1,000 miles the goods are carried 
on steamers of not less than 1,000 tons capacity and capable of 
a speed of ten knots or more an hour. 

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The list of the subsidized lines is given as follows : 
Yokohama — Melbourne. Kobe — Vladivostock. 

Yokohama — Bombay. Hong Kong— San Francisco. 

European Line. Shang-hai — Hankow. 

Hong Kong — Seattle. Hankow — Schang. 

Yokohama — Seattle. Shang-hai — Suchow. 

Kobe — North China. Shang-hai — Hangchow. 

Kobe — Korea. Suchow — Hangchow. 

Besides these given above, there are other lines of local 
importance which are being aided by the Formosan Government, 
the Hokkaido Government and the Prefectural Governments. 

The three largest steamship companies in Japan are Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha (Japan Steamship Company), Toyo Kisen Kaisha 
(Oriental Steamship Company) and Osaka Shosen Kaisha (Osaka 
Steamship Company). 

The following table shows the condition of these three steam- 
ship companies in 1902: 

Nippon Yusen Osaka Shosen Tovo Kisen 

Kaisha. Kaisha. Kaisha. 

Capital 22,000,000 5,500,000 3,250,000 

Reserve for dividends, 
repairs and insur- 
ance 1,672,924 226,100 105,542 

Number of steamers.. 108 98 7 

Total tonnages 222,979 64,076 26,419 235 191 3 

Passengers carried... 334»959 1,600,479 I5»503 

Freight carried 2,174,623 86,612 16,278,039 

Revenue from passen- 
gers (yen) 2,802,226 i,597,507 1,373,456 

Income from freights 

(yen) 13,358,691 2,952,845 1,256,500 

Subsidy from govern- 
ment (yen) 5,143,493 i,i27,93i 992,651 

Total income (yen) ..23,256,505 6,302872 3,782,471 
Total expenditure 

(yen) 18,044,940 5,422,431 2,969,963 

Net profit 5,211,565 880441 812,508 

Dividend 12% 10% 12% 

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The Nippon Yusen Kaisha, which is one of the largest 
steamship companies in the world, maintains 12 regular lines: 
Seattle — Hong Kong Line — fortnightly. 
European Line. 
Bombay Line — monthly. 
Yokohama Shanghai Line — four weekly. 
Kobe-Vladivostock Line — weekly. 
Kobe-Corea-North China Line — fortnightly. 
Kobe-Tientsin Line — fortnightly. 
Kobe-New Wang Line — fortnightly. 

Kobe-Otaru Line (Eastern Route) — every three (3) days. 
Kobe-Otaru Line (Western Route) — weekly. 
Kobe-Keelung Line — four times a month. 

The Nippon Susen Kaisha maintains a service between 
Seattle and Hong Kong, via Yokohama, Kobe and Shanghai with 
six steamers of the new twin-screw type of over 5,000 tons. 

The Toyo Kisen Kaisha runs between San Francisco and 
Hong Kong via Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki and 
Shanghai; also touches at Manila. The company has seven steam- 
ers of large size. The Nippon Maru, American Maru and Hong 
Kong Maru, which form the regular line between San Francisco 
and Hong Kong, are new. fast twin-screw steamships of 6,0D0 

The Osaka Shosen Kaisha runs regular lines in the Inland 
Sea,> along the western and southern coasts of Japan and between 
Kobe and North China and Formosa. 

Ship Building. 

The first shipyard built after the western pattern was estab- 
lished by the feudal government at Nagasaki in 1854. Since then 
shipyards have been built in all important ports, till in 1902 they 
numbered 167. During the same year these yards built yz steam- 
ships and 165 sailing ships. During the ten years between 1893 
to 1902, there were built in Japan 499 steamships, aggregating 
118,144 tons, and 1,000 sailing ships, aggregating 98,330 tons. 

Of these shipyards, Mitsubushi Shipyard, in Nagasaki, and 
Kawasaki Dockyard, in Kobe, are the most important, the former 
having been founded in 1854 and the latter in 1871. 

70 Digitized by Google 


THE establishment of a postal service in Japan dates back to 
about 202 A. D., when a system of dispatch-carrying known 
as Hikyaku was adopted. The present postal system, which is 
modeled after that of European and American countries, was 
adopted by the Japanese Government in January, 1871, when there 
were established post-offices, numbering 180 in all, distributed 
throughout the country. In 1877 Japan entered the International 
Postal Union, and in 1902 she joined the Universal Postal League 
relating to the value-declared letter and postal boxes ; also joined 
the International Parcel Post. 

At present there are 58 countries in the Postal Union, and 
of these 32 joined the Union after Japan had done so. 

At the end of 1902 there were 1,592 postal telegraph offices, 
2,534 post-offices, and 46,600 postal agencies in the country. In 
the same year 45,046 mail boxes were installed by the government, 
and 1,354 "lail boxes by private individuals, and over 50,000 
officials and mail carriers were employed. In Tokyo, in the 
same year, there were 60 postal and telegraph offices and 2,016 
postal agencies. 

The following table shows the mail matter transmitted durnig 

Letters 213,956,370 

Post cards '. 488,890,747 ' 

Newspapers and magazines 150,553,746 

Others 39,299,693 

Total 913,120,735 

In 1876 Japan established its postal-offices at various districts 
of China and Korea. These at present number 22 and are located 
as follows: 

China*— Shanghai, Tientsin, Chefoo, Suchow, Hangchow; Shasi, 
Amoi, Hankow, Peking, Fuchow, Newchang, Nanking. 

Korea — Fusan, Gensam, Ninsen, Mukpho, Chinnanpho, Masan, 
Kunsan, Songjin, Seoul, Pinggang. 

n-t Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Two hundred and fifty-seven officials and. mail carriers are 
employed in these postal offices. 

Postal rates, one letter, per momme, 3 sen (2.66 gram). 

Postal card, 1.5 sen, periodical, per 20 momme x 2.644 ounce, 
half sen, books and printing matter and sample, per 30 momme 
(3.966 oz.), 2 sen. 

Postal rates for parcels : 

up to 10 Ri. up to 100 Ri. Over 100 Ri. 

Up to 200 momme 5 sen 6 sen 16 sen 

Up to 400 momme 7 sen 12 sen 24 sen 

Up to 600 momme 9 sen 16 sen 32 sen 

Up to 800 momme 11 sen 20 sen 40 sen 

Up to 1,000 momme 13 sen * . 24 sen 48 sen 

Up to 1,250 momme 15 sen 25 sen 56 sen 

Up to 1,500 momme 17 sen 32 sen 64 sen 

Ri equals 2.44 miles. One momme equals 2.66 grams. 

The pos-t-offices in Japan dispatched 6,776,573 pieces of mail 
matter to, and received 7,010,517 pieces of mail matter from 
foreign countries in 1902. Of these 1,042,942 were sent to, and 
1,277,461 were received from the United States. The postal 
service between America and Japan equals in volume that between 
all the European countries and Japan. 

The International postal rate in Japan is charged as: Letter, 
2 cents for every 15 gramme; postal card, 2 cents; printed matter, 
I cent for every 50 gramme; sample of merchandise, 3 cents for 
a quantity not exceeding 100 gramme, and one cent for every 
additional 50 gramme; and registering, 5 cents. 

The postal service in Japan affords great facilities to merchants, 
as well as to the public by its system for the collection of trade 
charges and cash. This system was adopted in 1896, in connec- 
tion with- the parcel service. The amount to be collected may not 
exceed 300 yen. The system of collecting cash was adopted in 
1900. By it cash is collected for receipts of trade charges, war- 
rants of dividends on stock, shares, coupons of public loan bonds, 
or company's debt or receipt of premium of insurance, which 
are made payable to bearer. The amount of money to be thus 
collected is limited to 300 yen. When a collection is made by 

72 Digitized by Google. 

post-office, a notice to that effect is given the applicant, who, 
upon payment of the fee required for transmitting the money 
collected, may draw the cash. 

The expense incurred by the government on account of the 
postal service was considerable at the start, but this condition 
is being gradually adjusted. In 1873, the receipts from the 
source of the ordinary postal matters amounted to only 225,700 
yen, while the disbursement was more than double that sum. In 
1901 the receipts from the same source were 10,677,937 yen, 
while the disbursement was 7,286,030 yen; that is to say, the 
government in that year received 100 yen for every 68.2 yen 
it expended. From the parcel service the government received 
1,540,561 yen for its disbursement of 1,800,669 yen in the same 

In 1902 the post-offices in Japan issued money orders amount- 
ing to 95,534,704 yen to 9,291,592 applicants. Of these 13,260,704 
yen and 546,838 applications came through telegraph money 

The postal saving system was adopted in 1875. Deposits are 
received from ten sen upward, and the sum deposited by a single 
person in a day is limited to 50 yen, and the aggregate deposit, 
including interest, is limited to 500 yen. The interest allowed for 
the deposit is at present 4.8 per cent. In 1902 the post-offices 
received 27,196,802 yen in deposit from 2,363.335 persons. 


The telegraphic instruments were first introduced into Japan 
in 1853 by Commodore Perry, who presented two sets of the 
instruments to the feudal government. These, however, were not 
put to any practical use. The first telegraphic service was in- 
' stalled in 1869 by the government, which held a monopoly in 
the field. The service was gradually extended until in March, 
1903, there were 2,187 telegraphic offices, 549 receiving boxes and 
78,711 miles of line. In the same year 18,073,407 dispatches were 
sent and received over the various lines. The rate charged is 
20 sen for every 15 words; 5 sen being charged for every ad- 
ditional five words, not counting the address of the receiver. 
This rate is for dispatches within the country; for foreign coun- 
tries, of course, special rate is charged. * 

73 Digitized by GoOglC 

In January, 1879, Japan joined the International Telegraph 
Convention. The islands are now connected by four different 
cables with the Asiatic mainland. During 1902, 399,348 cable 
dispatches were sent to and 426,268 received from foreign coun- 
tries. The number of the paid cables sent to, and received from, 
the United States in 1902 was 22,594. 


Telephones were installed by the government for the first 
time in 1877. Its field is monopolized by the government. There 
were, in 1902, 29 principal exchanges, 151 call officers and 134 
public automatic telephones, and 104,725 miles of the line. In 
the same year there were 29,941 telephone subscribers and the 
number of calls made was 111,799,647. The rate charged to a 
subscriber is 60 yen a y^ar. The total receipts of the govern- 
ment from the telephone service in 1901 amounted to 1,810,411 yen. 

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THE forests of Japan, her natural ornaments, which occupy 
more than one-half of the Island Empire, would appear 
to have exerted an inspiring influence upon the minds of her 
inhabitants, for their love of forests and the luxuriance of sylvan 
growths is observed to be almost intuitive. One is also inclined 
to think that the Japanese may owe their burning patriotism and 
aesthetic sense to the profoundly sympathetic influence the forest 
seemed to have exercised upon them. 

According to the latest statistics, there are 56,564,044 acres of 
forest land, that is to say, over 59 per cent of the area of the 
whole of Japan exclusive of Formosa, which are divided as 
follows : 

State forests 32,157,034 acres 

Imperial forests 5,124,873 acres 

People's forests 19,282,137 acres 

The Imperial forests, which are the property of the Imperial 
household, are divided into two classes : hereditary and ordinary. 
The hereditary forests cover 2,433,263 and the ordinary 2^7(^,27^ 
acres. The former class include such forests as are so thickly 
wooded and extensive as to furnish enough material for a reguii..' 
working plan of forestry. The recent change in industrial Japan 
has resulted in a revolution in the modes of utilizing forests. 
There has been considerable increase in the domestic demand for 
timber and wood fuel, not only in connection with industrial 
and maintaining enterprises and for ordinary building purposes, 
but as well for making railroad ties and telegraph poles ; also 
for manufacturing various kinds of wooden articles and paper. 
The recent development in transportation facilities has caused 
traders in forestry products to seek customers abroad; especially 
in China and Corea. 

The following table shows the classes of forests in Japan, and 
what per cent each forms of the whole: 

Conifer forests 21 per cent 

Broad-leaved forests 25 per cent 

Conifer and broad-leaved forests 45 per cent 

Thinly stocked or black areas 9 per cent 

100 per cent 

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Following are the principal species of trees: - 

Camphor Tree (Cinnamomum Camphore). — Grows in the 
south of Japan and in Formosa. The timber is rather hard and 
lustrous and has a peculiar pungent odor. It is highly prized 
for making valuable articles of furniture as well as for the manu- 
facture of wooden ornaments. The tree produces gum camphor, 
for which there is a large demand abroad. Formosa furnishes 
more than three-fourths of all the camphor used throughout the 
globe. ^ 

TsuGE (Boxus Sempervirens). — The wood of this tree is ex- 
ceedingly hard, fine and so close-grained that the year-rings can 
hardly be traced when it is sawed into timber. It is capable of 
taking a high polish and is quite beautiful. It is well adapted to 
wood-carving and the manufacture of delicate ornaments. Fine 
rulers and mathematical instruments can be made from the wood, 
because of its quality of not shrinking or expanding whether wet 
or dry. 

Ubame-gashi (Quercus Ilex). — This tree grows in the south 
of Japan. It is white in color, shading to yellow, and is the 
hardest and heaviest of all timber produced in Japan. Its prin- 
cipal use is in the building of houses and general construction 

IcHi-GASHi (Quercus Gilva). — Shira-gashi (Quercus Vibraye- 
ant) and Aka-gashi (Quercus Acuta) are the most extensively 
used of all the broad-leaved class of trees. Their timber closely 
resembles that of Ubame-gashi and is used for making tool 
handles, implements and wheels. 

KuNUGi (Quercus Cerrata). — This species ranks high among 
Japanese trees because it affords excellent firewood and burns 
into a good grade of charcoal. 

The pine family is represented by two members: Akamatsu, 
red pine, and Kuromatsu, black pine. 

Akamatsu (Pinus Densiflora). — Is the most widely distributed 
of all the coniferous trees in Japan, but it is found principally 
in the south. The wood, which is yellowish white with a shade 
of red, is hard, strong and elastic, and contains a large percent- 
age of resinous substances, which make it proof against moisture. 
Because of the latter quality it is in demand for engineering 

76 Digitized by Google 

construction work, for mine props and building timbers. The 
pine mushroom (Matsutake), which is called the king of table 
mushrooms, grows in the red pine forests. 

KuROMATSU (Pinus Thunbergli). — Being very durable, the 
wood of this triee is suited for bridge foundation and for use in 
general subterraneous engineering construction. It burns with 
great heat, so is valuable as a steaming fuel and firewood. 

HiNOKi (Chamaecyparis Obtus). — Is a soft, close-grained 
wood, strong and toiigh and having a peculiar odor. It ranks 
first among Japanese trees for the number of usages to which its 
wood can be put. It is found in the central part of the country. 

HiBA (Thujopsis Dolabrata). — This tree grows slowly and the 
year-rings are extremely narrow. The timber is compact and 
possesses great resisting power, and is therefore much used for 
building and engineering purposes. 

SuGi (Cryptomeria Japonica). — Is very widely distributed, 
being second only to the red pine among the conifers in this 
respect. The wood is light yellow, shading to red. It is used 
very much for the same purposes as is Hinaki, such as the manur 
facture of tools, utensils and ornaments and for certain kinds of 

Keyaki (Zelkowa Keaki). — Is found everywhere in. Japan. 
The timber is very strong and hard, and will take a high polish. 
It is valuable for building and ornamental purposes; also for 
naval architecture. 

Besides these trees there are extensive groves of bamboo 
distributed through the country. Bamboo ranks high among the 
useful timbers of Japan. From ancient times it has been used 
for making various kinds of tools and utensils; for building and 

Generally speaking, the forestry industries of Japan are still 
in a comparatively primitive state, but with the care and en- 
couragement given them by the government and by private in- 
dividuals they are destined to attain high development. The pulp 
business, though of recent origin, has become a very important 
industry. The pulp consumed in Japan formerly came from 
abroad, but the steady development of the paper industry necessi- 

77 Digitized by Google 

tated its manufacture at home. At present Japan has five pulp 
mills operating with steam power. 

Carbonization is among the most important industrial uses 
to which wood is put in Japan. This industry is carried on wher- 
ever a broad-leaved forest is at hand to furnish wood for the 
kilns. Recently a, process for procuring vinegar as a by-product 
of carbonization was introduced in several localities. 

'As a minor product of the forest, mushrooms are an exceed- 
ingly valuable item in Japan. There are more than ten edible 
varieties, growing to a greater or less extent, throughout the 
country. Of these the Shiitake is the most important. The 
annual exports of this mushroom to China and other Oriental 
countries is equal to 900,000 yen. 

The state forests are under the control of sixteen major forest 
officers and 325 minor forest officers. Each minor officer has from 
three to five protection stations, numbering altogether 1,199. 

In 1882 the Tokyo Dendrological School, the first of the kind 
in Japan, was established in Nishigahara. Now, however, the 
science and art of forestry are taught in no less than sixty-two 
institutions of learning. 

78 D git zed by Google 

Fishery and Marine Products. 

EXTENDING obliquely from north to south, with a coast line 
of 18,500 miles, the Japanese Islands arc favorably situated 
for the production of marine life. Fishery supplies the inhab- 
itants with the staple diet, and is, therefore, carried on an ex- 
tensive scale ; 3,006,000 people are engaged in the enterprise, who 
use more than 400,000 fishing boats. In value the production 
exceeds that of any other country of the world except the United 
States and Great Britain. Fishery in Japan, therefore, may be 
regarded as no less important than the agriculture or commerce 
of the country. 

The administration relating to fishery is directed by the Im- 
perial Fishery Bureau, which is under the Department of 
Agriculture and Commerce. A fishery school, the only institution 
of the kind, has been established and is maintained by the bureau. 
The government has also several experimental fishery stations 
distributed at various sea-side places for the use of fishermen 
and students. These have training ships and fishinj^ boats. 
Every maritime prefecture, and even communities in some in- 
stances, has its own experimental fishery station or a fishery 
school or both, which are under the direct control of the Pre- 
fectural Fishery Bureau. 

Marine Products of Japan. 

Besides fishes and other marine animals, the sea gives to the 
Japanese many kinds of edible and useful seaweeds, as well as 
salt. Of the kinds of fishes that have important commercial 
value may be mentioned : Tunny, bonito, sardine, salmon, yellow- 
tail, herring, cod, crustaceans and mollusca of various kinds, and 
almost endless varieties of freshwater fishes. Aquatic quadrupeds 
and cetacea are also obtained in a great number, which have 
considerable commercial value. Edible and useful seaweeds are 
obtained in almost all the inland seas, and many of them are used 
as food, besides for various other purposes. Corals and pearls 
are now obtained in large quantities and are being exported. 
Salt manufacturing is an important industry in Japan, the annual 

79 Digitized by Google 

output amounting to more than 6,900,000 koku (koku equals 4.96 
bushels), or in value 9,000,000 yen. 

The following is about the average annual produce of prepared 
fisheries of Japan in the five years ending 1901 : . 

Herring 324,600,000 lbs. 

Sardines 366,174,720 lbs. 

Bonito 77,081,020 lbs. 

Pagrus 39,080,320 lbs. 

Scomberomous (sinnis lacip) ,. . 9,098,735 lbs. 

Tuny 34,476,695 lbs. 

Yellow-tail 33,120,000 lbs. 

Mackerel 52,897,053 lbs. 

Cod 17,008,362 lbs. 

Salmon 23,078,264 lbs. 

Ear-shell 7,269,600 lbs. 

Oysters 8,209,537 lbs. 

Cythera .' 8,876,200 lbs. 

Lobster 32,060,200 lbs. 

Cujtle-fish 67,816,800 lbs. 

Sea-weeds 57,358,900 lbs. 

The total value of marine products of the leading countries is : 

The United States $43,138,265- 

Great Britain 32,000,000 

Japan 26,000,000 

Russia 22,000,000 

It is seen that Japan ranks third in value of production; but 
in quantity she far exceeds any other nation. The reason for 
this is that fishes and marine products are very low in price in 
Japan as compared with other countries. The annual quantity 
of fish taken in Japan is estimated at 3,000,000 tons as against 
550,000 tons in the British waters. 

£.xports of Marine Products. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the Japanese use the greater part 
of their marine products for home consumption, the export of the 
production forms an important part of Japan's foreign trade. 
During 1902 the export amounted in value to 8,379,259 yen out 
of the total exports, which aggregated to 255,675,016 yen. The 

80 Digitized by Google 

export of marine products, as compared with other exports, is 

given in the following table: 

Exports of Marine 
Total Exports. Products. 

1896 117,842,761 5,115,199 

1900 204,429,994 6,439,855 

190I 252,349,543 8,685,816 

1902 258,303,065 8,379,259 

The greater part of marine products goes to China. Generally 

the exports consists of those products which are in small de- 
mands at home. 

The following table shows 
Country. Value in Yen. 

Hong Kong, China . 3,608,037 
China 3,200,672 

Italy 494,442 

Germany 466,706 

Asiatic Russia 196,573 

Korea 127,448 

Belgium 119,510 

France 1 16,300 

England 101,526 

The United States . . 66,745 

Hawaii 92,831 

Australia 26,255 

Austro-Hungary. . . 7,792 

Philippines ... . 4,938 

Canada 4,439 

Dutch India 2.850 

French India 978 

the exports in detail : 

Kombu (Laminaria), Kanten (aga- 
aga), dried sea-cucumber, dried 
cuttle-fish, shark fin, abalone, fish 
oil, dried salt cod, sardine, dried 


Fish oil and kanten. 


Salt and kombu. 

Fish oil. 


Fish oil, kanten, seal skin. 

Abalone, kanten, dried fish. 

Dried fish, cuttle-fish. 

Fish oil and kanten. 

Abalone-shells, fish oil. 

Dried fish. 

Dried fish. 



Japan imports annually about 534,818 yen's worth of marine 
products, including salt, salt fish, coral, shells, and hawksbill 
turtle shells. 

The part played by marine products in Japan's foreign trade 
began in the trade with China; the greater part of the product 


d by Google 

still going to that country. There is, however, a prospect for 
the product to be introduced into the world at large. The 
export to other countries is increasing year by year. Japan 
exhibited its marine products at the Universal Exposition at 
Paris, and at the recent International Fishery Exhibition at St. 
Petersburg. A peculiar and interesting feature of those exhibits 
was the dried sea-weeds, eaten by Orientals, and the dried jelly 
manufactured from sea-weeds. 

The government has encouraged the construction of fishing 
boats of western type, according to the Law for Encouragement 
of Pelagic Fishery. There are now 51 boats, with a gross ton- 
nage of 4,762 tons, which are receiving bounties from the govern- 

Fish culture is now extensively carried on both in fresh and 
in salt water. In the fresh water pisciculture, the raising of 
carp, snapping turtle, gray mullet and eels are the most im- 
portant operations undertaken; while in sea- water the culture 
of oysters, amanori and some shell-fish is regarded as the most 
profitable. Artificial spawning of salmon and trout is now 
practiced extensively, both in Hakkaido and the Main Island. 

Salt used in Japan is derived principally from sea-water, from 
which it is extracted either by means of the sun's heat or by 
artificial heat. The mineral salt produced in Japan is hardly 
worth mentioning, it being in extremely small quantities. Persons 
engaged in the salt business number over 100,000. The output 
differs according to the year, but the average is about 6.5 million 
koku. In 1892 the output, which was 6,908,964 koku (i koku 
equals 4.963 bushels), was equal in money value to 8,707,340 
yen. The price of one koku is about 1.26 yen. The Formosan 
salt industry promises to become far more prosperous even than 
that of Japan proper, owing to the greater natural advantages 
possessed by the former island. The process used in Formosa 
is the same as that employed in western countries. 

Of the fishery associations and public bodies the Japan Fish- 
ing Association and the Japan Salt Association are the most 
important. The former was organized in 1883 and now has a 
membership of 5,216. The latter, which was organized in 1896, 
has 2,600 members. Both of these associations publish monthly 

^2 Digitized by Google 


As early as the seventh and eighth centuries Japanese are 
known to have worked the mineral deposits of their country, 
extracting principally gold, silver, copper, iron, coal and petroleum. 
Mining, however, was in an exceedingly backward state until 
1668, when the government, which was eager to develop the 
mineral resources throughout the Empire, undertook the working 
of a number of important mines, and introduced the most modem 
European methods and machinery in carrying on the operations. 
After working the mines for several years the government sold 
these properties to private individuals, under whose management 
they have been brought to a most satisfactory and flourishing 

In 1890 the Japanese Mining Law was enacted. According 
to the terms of this act permission of the Minister of Agriculture 
and Commerce or a special concession must be obtained before 
any person may engage in a mining enterprise or prospect for 
minerals. When two or more applications are made for the 
same privilege, preference is given to the one filed on the earliest 
date. The period allowed for exploration is limited to one year, 
during which term no person other than the concessionaire may 
prospect in the area allotted him. 

The extent of any mining claim must be more than 10,000 
tsubo (about 8.16 acres) in coal lands, and in the case of other 
minerals more than 3,000 tsubo (about 2.45 acres), and not to 
exceed 60,000 tsubo (about 490.40 acres). To facilitate the ad- 
ministration of mining affairs the entire country is divided into 
five districts, each of which contains a mining inspection office. 
Each new operator is obliged each year to present a mining 
programme, which, after being approved by the inspection office of 
his district, must be carried out to the letter. Failure to fulfill 
the plan mapped out in the programme may result in the forfeiture 
of a concession. The government exercises perfect control over 
all mineral deposits, and sees to it that they are worked along 
lines which will assure the best results. Special privileges are 
given to miners. With the consent of the Director of Mining 

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they may survey any property, with or without the consent of its 
owner, also compel the owner to lease his land. Prior to 1900 
only Japanese subjects were permitted by law to operate mines 
or become partners in any mining enterprise. In that year, 
however, an amendment was adopted to the Mining Act per- 
mitting any Japanese subject or any company organized according 
to the Japanese Commercial Code to engage in mining enterprises 
in Japan. This enables foreigners to become partners or share- 
holders in Japanese mining properties. 

In 1893 a special law governing placer mining passed the 
Diet. This is similar in nearly all respects to the regular Mining 

The following table shows the exte'nt of exploration and 
mining proper in 1901 : 


Number of title deeds 6,859 

Acreage (tsubo*) 2,680,613 

Average acreage of mines for exploration (tsubo) 390,775 


Mining in operation 2,503 

Mining has been stopped 3,221 

Acreage of mining in operation (tsubo) 312,937,834 

Acreage of mining that has been stopped 392,036,491 

Average acreage for mining 123,236 

The following is a table showing the principal mineral pro- 
ducts during 1901 : 

Gold, ounces.' 87,523 

Silver, ounces 191,803 

Copper, pounds 60,264,865 

Iron, pounds 154,670,736 

Antimony, pounds 1,212,244 

Manganese, pounds 36,064,125 

Coal, tons 8,954,939 

Petroleum, gallons 3,905,682 

Sulphur, gallons ; 36,905,682 

♦Tsubo equals 36 square feet. 

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Anny and The Navy. 

AT the time of the foundation of the Japanese Empire, when 
the political institutions of the country were so simple that 
civil and military affairs were one and indivisible, all male adults 
in the realm were obliged to offer their services in the army, of 
which the Emperor was the Commander-in-Chief. During the 
Middle Ages a class of professional soldiers enjoyed hereditary 
pensions; were bound to their masters by the relationship of 
liege lords and retainers, and kept up the system of feudalism, 
which was carried to a state of great perfection during the 
Tokugawa Regency. This system ceased to exist in the seventies. 
Beginning with the reign of the present Emperor, the adminis- 
trative affairs were subdivided into seven departments, one of 
which took charge of military and naval affairs. This department 
was subdivided in 1872 into two departments, i. e., war and 
navy. In 1696 the office of Governor-General of Formosa was 
established, and in the same year the number of military divisions 
was increased from six to twelve. In 1898 the Supreme Council 
of War to the Emperor was established. 

The standing army is distributed as follows: 

Imperial Body Guard Tokio. 

First Division Tokio. 

Second Division Sendai. 

Third Division • Nagoya. 

Fourth Division Osaka. 

Fifth Division Hiroshima. 

Sixth Division Kumamoto. 

Seventh Division Asahigawa (Hokkaido). 

Eighth Division Hirosaki. 

Ninth Division Kanafeawa. 

Tenth Division Himeji. 

Eleventh Division Marukame. 

Twelfth Division Kokura. 

The Emperor has the supreme command of the army and navy. 
The army of the Empire is uniformly organized on the con- 
scription basis. 

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All the Japanese male subjects from seventeen to forty years 
old are liable to military service. The service is divided into 
active service, landwehr service, depot service and landsturm 
service. The active service is divided into service with colors 
and with the first reserve. The former extends over three years 
and is obligatory with all males who have attained the age of 
twenty years. Service with the first reserve is obligatory with 
all who have served with the colors and lasts for four years 
and four months. 

The landwehr reserve lasts five years and is formed of those 
who have been through the first reserve service. 

The depot service is divided into the first depot service and 
the second depot service. The former lasts seven years and four 
months and the latter one year and four months. The first 
depot service is composed of men who have not been enlisted 
for active service, while the second depot service is made up 
of those who have not been enlisted for the first depot service. 

The landsturm service is dy^ided into the first and second 
divisions, the former composed of men who have completed their 
term in the landwehr service, and the first depot service and the 
second division includes all those who are not in the other 

The following table shows the strength of the Imperial Army 

•" 19°°= Office. 

General and departments staff. . . 1,673 
Regiments 6,110 

Imperial Guard 573 

Twelve divisions 4,95 1 

Formosan Garrison 470 

Gendarmerie 116 

Other 26a 


Total 8,400 

Reserve 2,400 

Landwehr 1,165 

First Depot 

Second Depot 

Grand total 11.611 




























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The statistics relative to population in 1898 showed that there 
were 8,640,850 males between the ages of from 15 to 40 years, 
and 6,449,660 between the ages of 20 and 40 years. It may be 
safely said that there are 7,000,000 males in Japan who are of 
the proper age for military service at the present time. 

Arsenals. — In the arsenals of Japan are manufactured all 
sorts of arms used by the army, and also ammunition for the 
fleets. The arsenals are situated in Tokyo and Osaka. At the 
former are manufactured small arms, cartridges, and the ap- 
pliances and tools pertaining to small arms. It maintains three 
powder factories. The Osaka arsenal turns out big guns, cannon 
balls and other articles of heavy ordnance, and maintains a 
powder factory at Uji and the firearms workshop at Maji. 

In 1901 something over 2,160,805 workdays were put in by the 
operators at the Tokyo arsenal, and 1,499,557 at the Osaka arsenal. 

The War Department maintains a woolen factory at Tokyo 
and also maintains pasture and grass land covering 148,230 acres 
for horses used in the army. 

Training for officers and soldiers is received in Staff College, 
Artillery and Engineering School, Officers' School, Military 
Training School, Central Military Preparatory School, local mil- 
itary preparatory schools, military riding schools, military field 
shooting schools, forts, artillery practice schools, military pay- 
master schools, military surgery schools, military veterinary 
surgery schools, military armorers' and mechanics* work schools, 
and military band school. 

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THOUGH nothing definite is known about the maritime affairs 
in very ancient times, it is fairly certain that the art of 
navigation was tolerably well developed in Japan about twenty- 
six or twenty-seven centuries ago, that is to say, about six or 
seven centuries before the Christian era. History records the 
existence of intercourse at that remote period between Japan and 
Korea. It is worthy of note that Empress Jingo, in the beginning 
of the third century, sent an expedition to Korea. Sometime in 
the tenth century a naval battle was fought in Dannoura, near 
Shimoseki, between the Genji and Heike clans, an account of 
which is contained in chronicles of that time. The invasion of 
Kublai Khan's Armada in the next century is an important 
event in the early history of the Empire. The annihilation of that 
Armada was even more complete than the destruction by England 
of the Spanish Armada. Towards the close of the eleventh 
century Japan took the offensive against China and several en- 
gagements occurred between Tideyoshi's fleet and the Koreans 
off the coast of that peninsula, though the warships of those days 
were merely armed merchantmen or even fishing boats, the fierce 
battles in which they engaged showed the spirit of the sailors 
manning them, and formed the beginning for the naval power of 
Japan which has come in recent years into such prominence. 

It was only recently that Japan obtained modern-built war 
vessels. The first warships of this type which the Tokugawa 
•Regency purchased from abroad were ten in number. Some few 
warships were also purchased by the feudal lords of Satsuma 
and Tosa. 

In 1872 the navy became an independent department of the 
State and a naval academy, magazine, hospital and court martial 
were established. Yokosuka Dockyard became the center of the 
navy Department. The admiralty was established in 1873. There 
are today four admiralties — one each at Yokosuka, Kure', Sasebo 
and Maizuru. In 1900 the Tokyo Naval Arsenal and the Shimose 
Powder Factory were established. There are ten workshops run 
by the Navy Department. 

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The following are naval statistics gathered in Japan in 1901 : 

Active. 1st Reserve. 2d Reserve. Total. 

Admirals and non-combat- 
ants of equal rank 47 

Senior officers 639 

Junior > officers 1,060 

Cadets 330 

Special warrant officers. . 631 

Warrant officers 5,802 

Seamen 22,036 

Students 834 

Total 3i»379 






















Naval WorKs. 

No. of 
Works. Bn8:iiies. 

Yokosuka Dockyard. ... 28 

Kure 17 

Sasebo 9 


Yokosuka Arsenal 2 

Kure 41 

Sasebo 2 


Tokyo 9 

Shimose Powder Factory i 

109 5,078 6,892,821 

According to the latest report the Janapese Navy comprises 
the following ships : 

Number. Total Tonnage. 

First-class battleships 6 86,299 

Armored cruisers 6 58,778 

First-class cruisers 8 39, 106 

Second-class cruisers 12 4i,739 

' First-class gunboats 2 2,114 

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89 ^ ^ d . 


No. of Operators 

Computed by 
the Attendance. 



















Number. Total Tonnage. 

Armored coast defences 2 11,112 

Coast defences and gunboats 23 32,273 

Torpedo destroyers 19 6,227 

Total 78 277,648 

First-class torpedo boats 18 

Second-class 40 

Third-class 27 

Total 85 

In 1872 laws relating to the sailors were enacted and con- 
scription method of securing recruits for the navy adopted. The 
conscription service system is supplemented by the voluntary 
service system. 

There is a naval college, a naval academy, a naval engineering 
school, a naval surgery school, a paymaster's training school, a 
naval gunnery training school, a naval torpedo practice training 
school and an engineering practice training school. 

The proposed expenditure for strengthening the Japanese 
Navy is as follows: Yen 

For the building of warships 62,348,269 

For war material and extension of the Kure Arsenal. . . 29,001,313 
For buildings 8,510,723 


This sum to be spread over eleven years, beginning with the 
year ending March 31, 1904. 

The total estimated expenditure for 1903 is 22,077,695 yen. 

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THE western system of education was adopted in all the 
primary schools in Japan in 187 1. Elementary education 
has been made compulsory. According to the statistics taken 
March 31, 1902, children of school age, that is, between the ages 
of 6 and 14 years, numbered 6,382,967, of which 5,720,926 were 
attending school, while the balance, or 766,563, remained out of 
school. The rate of attendance is 88.05 per cent, while only 
11.95 per cent fails to attend school. The percentage of boys 
attending school is 93.78, while the rate of non-attendants is 
6.22 per cent. The percentage of girls* attendance is 81.80 per 
cent, while only 18.20 per cent does not go to school. 

A kindergarten was founded in Japan in 1878. The number 
of this kind of institutions has been so increased that in 1901 
there were 241 kindergartens, with 596 teachers and nurses, and 
23,090 pupils. 

The highest educational institutions of the country are the 
Imperial University of Tokyo and the Imperial University of 
Kyoto. These were founded and are maintained by the govern- 
ment. The Tokyo University was founded in 1869. It comprises 
at present six colleges, namely, the Colleges at Law, Medicine, 
Literature, Science, Engineering and Agriculture. A graduate 
department called University Hall is also included in it. In De- 
cember, 1901, there were 262 professors and instructors, of whom 
seventeen were Europeans and Americans. The total enrollment 
of the students in the same year was 3,435. The Kyoto University 
was founded at Kyoto in 1897. It comprises at present four 
colleges, namely. Colleges of Law, Science, Medicine and En- 
gineering. It has ninety-four professors and instructors, of whom 
one is European. The enrollment of students is 641. 

There are, besides, six collegiate institutes founded and main- 
tained by private individuals. Of these the Keiogijiku and the 
Waseda Universities are the best known. The former was es- 
tablished by the late Ukichi Fukuzawa and the latter by Count 
Okuma. The other colleges instituted and maintained by the 


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Department of the Imperial Household are Gakushyu-in (Peers' 
College) and Kozoku-Jogakko (Peeress' College), of which the 
former has a university course. The Departments of the Navy 
and the Army have their especial schools and colleges. There 
is spent annually by the government about 28,000,000 yen for 
educational purposes, and the property belonging to public schools 
is estimated to be worth 52,000,000 yen. 

The following table shows the number of governmental, 
public and private schools, instructors and students in 1902-1903: 

Number of Number of Number of Number of 
Schools. Instructors. Students. Graduates. 

Elementary schools. ..27,154 109,118 5,135,487 935,429 
Blind and dumb 

schools 19 loi 1,063 96 

Normal schools 57 1,031 I9,i94 9,058 

Higher normal schools 3 129 1,091 247 
Institutions for train- 
ing middle school 

teachers 5 57 169 

Middle schools 258 4,681 ' • 95,027 11,179 

Higher girls' schools. . 60 i,i75 21,563 4,809 

Higher schools 8 301 4,781 875 

Imperial universities.. 2 349 4,046 729 

Special schools 56 1,350 19,964 2,685 

Fine arts schools i 42 324 60 

Music schools i 45 423 23 

Technical schools 854 2,789 60,051 8,317 

Institutions for train- 
ing technical schools 3 46 150 52 
Miscellaneous schools. 1,657 5,546 106,169 22,118 

Total 36,158 126,712 5,469,442 995,676 

There is a large number of correspondence schools, which 
supply instruction to persons who are unable to regularly attend 

The number of students sent to study abroad by the Depart- 
ment of Education in 1903 was 123, including two women. 


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In 1901 there were fifty libraries with a total of 619,232 
volumes. The Imperial library, which was founded in 1872, is 
the largest in the country, it having 376,856 volumes. 

In 1901 there were published in Japan 18,998 books of various 
kinds, and 1,181 periodicals, including monthly, weekly and daily 

There are two educational museums, one in Tokyo and one 
other in Nara. 

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FORMOSA, together with the smaller adjacent islands, cover- 
ing an area of 13,417 square miles, was ceded to Japan by 
China as a result of the war of 1894-5. The Formosan Island, 
which is the largest in the group, extends from north to south 
and is directly opposite Fu-Chow on the Asiatic mainland, and 
is linked to the Philippines on the south. The climate of the 
island may be fairly compared with that of the South Sea Islands. 
Its inhabitants consist chiefly of a race akin to the Chinese, and 
of half-civilized Chinese and Japanese, who have but recently 
migrated there. In 1901 official statistics relative to the popula- 
tion of Formosa gave the following figures: 

No. of Houses Population 

Japanese I3,777 42,124 

Natives and Chinese 545,009 2,882,948 

Total 558,786 2,925,072 

The number of Japanese given here does not include the 
troops stationed in the island. The number of natives includes 
the aborigines, numbering about 94,315, with 18,332 houses. 

• Administration. 

Since the acquisition of Formosa by the Japanese the adminis- 
tration has been intrusted to a governor-general, appointed by 
the Tokio government. A civil governor is also appointed, who 
is responsible for the civil administration. The present governor- 
general is Baron Kodama and the civil governor Dr. Shimpei 

Frequent uprisings by native insurgents were among the 
greatest difficulties which had to be encountered and overcome 
by the administration. The Japanese Government, however, has 
been able to induce the insurgents to surrender themselves, and 
in a majority of instances return to peaceful occupations. This 
was accomplished by a wise and well-directed policy. 


Since the Japanese occupation of the island, schools and col- 
leges on the Japanese pattern have been established and conducted 

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along the most progressive lines followed in Europe and America. 
There are at present one medical college, three normal schools, 
four language schools, and thirteen primary schools under the 
direct management of the Formosan Government, and employing 
5,279 teachers. Besides, there are 121 public schools in the 
island with 501 teachers, and attended by 16,315 natives. In 
addition there are 1,561 private schools with 1,593 teachers, in- 
cluding forty-seven Japanese and three Europeans. These public 
and private schools have 29,352 pupils, including 150 Japanese 

Sanitary Syatem. 
A system of drainage, which 'is among the best in the far East, 
has been established by the Japanese government in the city of 
Taipeh. Drinking water is supplied from artesian wells in Taipeh 
and by the waterworks on the Tamsui River and the Kelang. 
People in the principal cities are in a most healthful condition 
and well provided for. The Japanese officers in the island are 
provided with residences newly built and with special attention 
paid to their sanitary arrangement. There are twelve government 
and sixteen private hospitals. ^ ' 


The annual revenue exceeds 18,000,000 yen. The opium, salt, 
and camphor industries are monopolized by the Formosan Govern- 
ment, and yield an annual revenue of 4,000,000 yen, 400,000 yen 
and 4,000,000 yen, respectively. (See ''Finance of Japan.") 

Foreign Trade. 

In 1902 the exports amounted to 13,816,868 yen and the im- 
ports to 10,100,532 yen. The most important port is that of 
Tamsui, at the mouth of the Tan^sui River. At this port alone the 
imports and exports amount annually to 15,000,000 yen. China is 
the greatest importer as well as exporter. In the export trade Hong 
Kong comes next to China. The exports to the United States 
amounted to 1,735,000 yen and the imports to 990,495 yen in 1902 ; 
368,150 tons of merchant vessels entered Tamsui Port and 
cleared for the foreign parts in 1902. The principal exports con- 
sist of tea, rice and camphor. Oolong tea, which is well known 
throughout the world, was originally a product of the Formosan 


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Island. In 1902 the exports of the tea amounted to 6,518,924 yen; 
the export of rice to 1,915,765 yen, and that of camphor to 
2,849,132 yen. The principal imports during the same year were : 
Locomotives, 202,384 yen; flour, 326,778 yen; ginseng, 71,625 yen; 
opium, 1,476,693 yen; rice, 376,892 yen; kerosen, 810,945 yen; 
paper, 257,654 yen; cotton and cotton goods, 1,375,221 yen; linen 
and cotton tissues, 187,212 yen ; grass clothes, 151,887 yen ; tobacco, 
319,061 yen; hay, 381,854 yen; teak timber, 433,178 yen; matting, 
145,751 yen ; porcelain and earthenwares, 133,554 yen ; paper froils, 
274,573 yen; vessels and boats, 301,882 yen. The camphor in- 
dustry of Formosa supplies four-fifths of the world's demand. 

Railw^aya and Harbor WorKa. 

Railways, which were first built in the island by the Japanese, 
connect all the principal trading centers with the sea ports. 
Harbor works are progressing rapidly, over 35,000,000 yen having 
been appropriated for the railways and harbor works. 

' ' Formosan Tea. 

THE northern part of Formosa, between the latitudes 24 de- 
grees and 25 degrees and 10 minutes north, including an 
area 100 miles in length and 50 or 60 miles in width, is a region 
considerably mountainous, almost two-thirds being plateaus and 
valleys, which are thoroughly cultivated and planted with tea 
trees. The field yields excellent Oolong tea, originally the product 
of this region. The villages and towns in this part of the island 
are famous on account of the tea produced. The plantations are 
naturally on the slopes, which gives perfect drain. The soil 
consists of a clay, which is best adapted for tea cultivation. 

The climate is mild, and there is ample fall of rain, amounting 
to 2,000 cu. c. m. annually. In summer the highest temperature 
registered does not exceed 28 degrees centigrade, and in winter 
the lowest temperature registered is 13 degree centrigrade. The 
growth of* the tea plant is, therefore, most favored, and there 
has never been damaging results from the weather. The tea in- 
dustry of Formosa is one of the most prosperous in the world, 
and the extensiveness of the enterprise may be imagined from 

96 Digit zed by Google 

the fact that the hills and mountains arc almost totally covered 
with the tea trees. 

The origin of the tea cultivation cannot be definitely ascer- 
tained, but it probably came from China several hundreds of years 
ago. In early times the cultivation was confined to the use of 
one's own household. About 1655, however, it began to be at- 
tended with more effort; new plantations were opened year after 
year and in different localities; at the same time selection of the 
quality of the tree was made with utmost care. Improvement was 
also introduced, with the result of considerably increasing the 
quantity of the product, until today tea has become the most 
important product of Northern Formosa. 

There are eight varieties of tea plants, each differing from the 
rest in forms of tree and leaves. 

1. Chiishim, or Oolong variety, has small leaves, not 
unlike to the willow leaves that growth in Japan proper. 
This leaf is thick and weighty, and has the best flavor 
of all the leaves produced in the island. 

2. Beimoko. — ^This has similar leaves as the Oolong, 
but while sprouting the soft leaves are covered with white 
cillia. In flavor it ranks to Oolong. 

3. Amshim« — This is third in quality, and during its 
sprouting time the leaves have scarlet color. 

4. Kamau. — This variety has large leaves, much like 
to those of a large camellia. Its flavor ranks next to that 
of the other. 

5. Beishim. — The leaves of this variety are like those 
of Beimoko. During sprouting the youngest leaf in the 
center has white color. 

6. KiiRAN. — This is similar to Beishim. It has a 
flavor, but the quantity that may be obtained is small as 
compared with the rest of the varieties. 

7. Tekuhyo. — ^The leaves of this variety are like bam- 
boo leaves. 

8. Shitei. — This variety is recognized by its round 
leaves and is the lowest in quality of the tea produced in 
the island. 

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These varieties are classed and divided with particular care 
and planted according to the character of the soil. The planting 
is done in two ways : multiplication and cultivation. The multi- 
plication is done by two processes, namely, by seeding and plant- 
ing. From which of the two methods the better results can be 
obtained is not yet determined, but the experiences of several 
years seem to indicate that the former gives better flavor to the 

Planting is done by burying the branches of the tea tree, se- 
lected as mother tree, under the earth until they take root. This 
is done usually in about February and March. The rooting suc- 
ceeds in about ten or twelve months, and then the rooted branches 
are cut off from the parent trees. The trees thus planted jrield 
leaves in about three or four years. 

The seeding is done by sowing the seed in about the months 
of February and March. This process produces the leaves in 
about four years. The most common method practiced today is 
that of planting. Seeding has practically been discontinued, as 
planting gives better aroma and taste to the leaves. At any rate, 
the long experience of the native planters seems to indicate that 
greater advantage can be obtained from planting than from 

Tea cultivation requires no fertilizing, the only car^ needed 
being weeding. This is done four times a year : in January, April, 
August and November, by ploughing. During rainy seasons, how- 
ever, attention is required to keep covered the roots of the trees 
with earth in order to protect them from decay. Airing the trees 
is practiced to foster the sprouting. 

Tea trees grow from one foot and two inches to two feet and 
eight inches in height. In one tsubo (tsubo equals 36 square feet) 
two or three rows or circles are planted. Once in about thirteen 
or sixteen years, according to the condition of the soil and to the 
kind of plant, the trees are cut off, leaving the stems only, from 
which new sprouts are again made to grow. 

The leaves are picked during the months from March to 
November. A single tree may be picked ten times during the 
season. The leaves are called Spring, Summer, Autumn and 
Winter, , according to the season in which they are picked. Only 

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the youngest leaves are picked, that is, three leaves in the center 
of the full-grown leaves. These are treated with utmost care. 

The largest plantations measure from 65 to 74 acres, although 
there is occasionally one as large as 150 acres. The smallest are 
only one-fourth to one-half of an acre in extent. The average 
quantity obtained from a plantation of 2.45 acres is about 2,700 

Two kinds of tea are produced in the island today, namely, 
the Formosan Oolong tea and the Formosan Pouchong tea, the 
former of which is originally a Formosan product, while the 
latter is a recent production. 

Manufacturing Tea. 

Oolong Tea. — The manufacturing of the Oolong tea is divided 
into two parts: one is that which is done by peasants, and is 
crude in form, and the other, which is done in the hands of the 
tea merchants, who refine the crude product. 

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First Process in Manufacture. — The Formosan tea is not 
made by any machinery, but is entirely the product of manipula- 
tion. Hence, the manufacturing solely depends upon the skill 
acquired through many years' experience, and the experts have 
their peculiar attainment, which is not easily learned. 

The manufacturing process may be briefly described as fol- 
lows : 

The fresh leaves are spread on a cloth of flax fibre and 
exposed to the sun till proper dryness is obtained. The dried 
leaves are then put into a 'flat bamboo basket and further dried 
in the shade or indoors. The third process is to spread the leaves 
thinly on a mat and dry still further. Next, or final process, is 
to apply heat. The leaves are put in a pot and heated till proper 
curl is obtained. This is repeated three times. 

Much care and skill are required for the curling process, as 
the quality of finished tea depends on this final process. The 
heating gives not only the curling but creates fermentation, which 

100 Digitized by GoOglC 

gives the odor and flavor to the tea. The time required from 
the first to the last processes is seven hours and thirty minutes 
in making of Spring tea; five hours and fifty- four minutes in 
making the Summer tea; seven hours and thirty-eight minutes 
in Autumn tea, and seven hours and thirteen minutes in the 
making of Winter tea. 

The most important feature in making Formosan Oolong tea 
is that which gives flavor, taste and color; the shapfe or manner 
of curling counts the least. The desired results are obtained 
chiefly from the processes of drying and heating, for which 
a proper degree of temperature and dryness must be noted with 
utmost care. Instruments for ascertaining these conditions are 
always at hand. 

The processes given constitute making the so-called crude tea. 
One pound of this kind of tea is obtained from leaves weighmg 
four pounds, or 231 pounds from one acre. 


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Crude tea is produced largely by peasants, and comes in bags 
of cloth, each containing fifty kin, or sixty-seven pounds. Hence, 
the name "bag tea." 

The Second Process in Manufacturing or R.efining« 

Refining is done by tea merchants, who obtain crude tea from 
the peasants. The crude tea is passed through sieve and that 
which is left on the mesh is picked over and the best leaves 
selected and dried again by applying heat. The tea refined is 
packed in boxes for the market. From lo to 15 per cent is lost 
in the process of refining. 

Tea boxes are of cedar and made square with zinc plate on the 
inside. They are imported from Fuchu, China. The size of 
usual box vgiries from seven and one-half kin, or 1.99 pounds, 
capacity, to fifteen kin, ^r 19.9 pounds, capacity ; larger ones are 
from twenty-five kin, or 33.12 pounds, to thirty-three kin, or 43.73 
pounds. The smaller ones are called "boxes," and the larger 
ones "half-chest." The boxes are decorated with pictures rep- 
resenting flowers, birds or men, or the names and trade-marks of 
the tea merchants. The refined tea is therefore called "box tea." 

In color the Formosan Oolong tea is intermediate to the' green 
tea and the black tea. But in its manufacturing process it has 
its own peculiarity. The most important features of the Formosan 
Oolong are the excellency of its flavor and odor, and its strong 
but not bitter taste. When drank it gives a pleasant, refreshing 
sensation and has a strong stimulating effect. One who tastes 
this tea will readily find that the quality is unsurpassed by other 

Analysis of the Formosan Oolong gives the following con- 
stituents : 

Class One. 

Theine 1.968 Extract 34.620 

Tannin 9.630 Moisture 2.780 

Albuminoids 16.625 Mineral matter 7.600 

Class Two. 

Theine 1.933 Extract 42.822 

Tannin 6.163 Moisture 8.838 

Albuminoids 15.925 Mineral matter 6.503 

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Pouchong Tea, or Scented Tea. 

Pouchong tea was originally made in China. Its manufacture 
in Formosa dates back only about twenty years. It is made 
by mixing the Oolong tea with a certain kind of flower having a 
strong odor, and then leaving the mixture till the scent is ab- 
sorbed by the tea leaves. The tea leaves thus treated are sub- 
jected to the drying process, after which the flower is cast out. 
The scented tea has the refreshing effect and retains the flavor 
and taste of the original Oolong. Four kinds of flowers are used 
for scenting, and the tea is named according to the different 
flowers used. 

Pouchong tea is packed in paper bags, of four taels, two taels 
and one tael, respectively, which are encased in the boxes similar 
to those used for tlie Formosan Oolong. These boxes contain 
twenty kin, or 26.5 pounds, each, and are wrapped with zinc 
plate on the outside. 

The Daito Tea Market. 

Daitotei is a city located on the Tamsui River, about one mile 
from the northern gate of the Taihoku Jo, Formosa. Its popula- 
tion is 14,000 and it is the commercial center of Northern For- 
mosa, as well as the chief center for tea trading. Almost all 
the Formosan tea merchants have their residences, stores and 
offices in this city. It is here that the crude tea is brought in 
by peasants and the refined tea exported. During the tea Season 
the city is transformed into one great tea market and tea factory. 
Tens of thousands of men and women engage in the work of 
refining crude tea, which is done under direction of tea merchants. 
Communication and transportation are by the Tamsui River, 
which connects the city with Tamsui Port, where vessels await 
to take the produce abroad. 

Among the merchants are Europeans, Americans, Chinese and 
Japanese. There are seven firms engaged in the refining and 
trading. They are : 

Tate & Co. (English) 

Boyd & Co. (English) 

Jardine Matheson & Co. (English) 

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Smith, Baker & Co. (American) 

Macy & Co. (American) 

Averill & Co. (American) 

The Formosan Mercantile Co. (American) 

The Chinese tea merchants are chiefly from Amoy, their num- 
ber being equal to about id per cent of the Formosan merchants. - 
They usually come to Formosa and establish temporary quarters 
there at the beginning of the season, in which the spring leaves 
are picked, and in winter they depart from the island. Only a 
few of the Chinese and Japanese merchants engage directly in 
exporting tea; a majority of <^hem being occupied with simply 
selling their refined product to the firms already mentioned. 
There are about 200 of this class of firms in the island, and these 
co-operate with each other through the medium of an association 
called Daitokei Tea Traders' Association, which is one of the 
most influential organizations in the island. 


Formosan tea was first exported by an Englishman named 
John Dodd, who sent it to Amoy, China, whence, through the 
firm Tate & Co., it was exported to America. At that time the 
amount exported was only 5,000 pounds. The Formosan tea 
export business, therefore, is only of comparatively recent date. 
During the past thirty years it has grown enormously. Formosan 
tea has obtained great popularity in America, where the annual 
consumption is 1,500,000 kin, representing a value of 600,000 yen. 
Tea is the greatest of the three principal trade articles of For- 
mosa. The export of Formosa Oolong tea to America amounts to 
nine- tenths of the entire export to all other countries. Some 
Oolong goes to England and to British Columbia. 

Formosan tea is sent to America from Daitotei via Tamsui 
Port, where steamers take it to Amoy, China. From Amoy it 
is sent to New York by way of Atlantic route. 

Pouchong tea goes to Java, Borneo, Sumatra and other South 
Sea islands. The export to these points amounts to about eight 
or nine-tenths of the whole, the balance being sent to Hainan, 
Siam and Singapore. 

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The following table shows the export of Oolong tea: 

Value Percentage. 
Quantity in Kin. Orifrinal in Yen. 

Year. Kin =1.325 Lbs. Price. Yen = $.4979 

1867 203,000 

1868 396,100 

1869 546,900 ...... 

1870 1,054,000 

187I 1,486,800 

1872 i,95i»300 * 

1873 1,560,900 

1874 2,461,000 808,369.592 32.847 

1875 4,157,300 1,049.601.845 25.247 

1876 5,890,500 

1877. ... — 6,923,003 

1878 8,026,100 

1879 8,503,200 

1880 9,047,500 

I88I 6,944,600 

1882 9,030,300 

1883 9,905,000 

1884 9,867,400 

1885 12,273,000 

1886 12,126,700 

1887 12,644,200 

1888 13,574.100 

1889 13,070,800 

1890 12,862,900 

I89I 13,575,300 

1892 13,675,700 

1893. •••. — 16,394,900 
1894 15,400,300 

1895 I3,39^,»50 

1896 15,923,475 

1897 15,228,642 

1898 15,095,111 

1899 14,547,826 

1900. 14,598,584 


















































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Value Percentasre 
Quantity in Kin. Orisrinal in Yen. 

Year. Kin —1.325 Lbs. Price. Yen — $.4979. 

1901 I4»539,305 4, 185,828.330 28.91 1 

1902 I4»259,550 6,261,513.000 43-911 

1903 15,130,558 5,600,417.000 37014 

(Till November). 

How to Make a Refreshing Drink. 

"Use freshly boiled water. Water which has stood or been 
boiled long is flat. 

"Scald a porcelain tea-pot. Pour out the water, and, while the 
pot is still hot, put in the required amount of tea and add the 
boiling water. Let it steep (not boil) from three to five minutes, 
according to strength desired, using ^ oz. of the leaves to one 
quart of water, or about one teaspoonful for each cup. Serve 
at once." 

Tea value at the Daitotei market in 1903: 
High class — 

Spring tea, from 50 to 60 yen per one hundred kin, or 132.5 

Summer tea, from 55 to 70 yen per one hundred kin, or 132.5 

Autumn tea, from 35 to 45 yen per one hundred kin, or 132.5 
Intermediate class — 

Spring tea, from 45 to 50 yen per one hundred kin, or 132.5 

Summer tea, from 40 to 55 yen per one hundred kin, or 132.5 

Autumn tea, from 25 to 35 yen per one hundred kin, or 132.5 
Low class — 

Spring tea, from 35 to 40 yen per one Jiundred kin; or 132.5 

Summer tea, from 30 to 40 yen per one hundred kin, or 132.5 

Autumn tea, from 20 to 25 yen per one hundred kin, or 132.5 

106 Digitized by Google 

Any information concerning the tea industry may be obtained 
by addressing Teishon-Konhoi (Tea Traders' Association), Daito- 
tei, Taineh, Formosa, Japan. 

China Grass, 

China grass is cultivated in almost all the places where native 
Formosans live, and it is harvested four times a year. The ex- 
port of this product amounts annually to nearly -30,000 kin. This 
industry is exclusively in the hands of the Qiinese. 

The plant grows from two to eight feet high and possesses a 
very flexible fibre, far exceeding in strength o( that produced in 
China. The Formosan product is quoted higher in the market 
than the grass produced in China, which fact gives hint as to 
its merit. 

China grass is used in making nets and other fishing imple- 
ments, which possess great strength and durability in the water, 
and are therefore demanded by fishermen. For this purpose the 
Formosan grass is almost twice as good as that grown on Chinese 

At present the use of China grass is limited, and the demand 
for it is not as yet such as to encourage an extensive cultivation 
of the plant. But the time seems near when new uses will be 
found for the grass. The China grass area in Formosa is almost 
unbounded, and it is expected that when the demand justifies 
it new methods will be introduced into the cultivation, so that 
the. acreage will not only be extended but the quality of the 
grass much improved. At present the cultivation is done entirely 
by the natives with their crude implements and in the most 
primitive fashion. 

Tamsui Hat. 

Since the Panama hat became into vogue an attempt has been 
made to compete with this Central American product by making 
a rival hat from a certain kind of fibre grown in the Formosan 
Island. After various experiments good results were obtained in 
the production of a hat known as "Tamsui Hat." 

X07 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

The material selected is Pandanus odorattssimus, which grows 
almost everywhere in the island. This grass has a remarkable 
power of growth, readily taking root in any soil. It may be 
found growing on river banks, in fields and uncultivated lands. 
It is planted and used as fences. 

The hat made of this grass has a perfectly white color, which 
lasts through many washings. The fibre being perfectly flexible, 
the hat may be folded and carried about in one's pocket without 
the least injury. It far surpasses the Panama hat and may be 
obtained at comparatively small cost. Hence, in the far East this 
Formosan product has rapidly replaced the costly Panama hat. 
The workmanship in the Tamsui hat is also excellent. 


d by Google 

The Red Cross Society of Japan. 

ORIGIN. — The society was founded in the tenth year of Meiji 
(1877). At the beginning it had the name of Hakuai-sha 
(Benevolence Society), but in 1886 it entered, the treaty of Geneva 
Convention, became an international institution, and adopted the 
name of Red Cross Society of Japan. 

Exalted Patronage. — The Red Cross Society of Japan is 
under the exalted patronage of their Majesties the Emperor and 
the Empress of Japan. 

Honorary Presidency. — The honorary presidency of the so- 
ciety is held by his Imperial Highness Prince Kan-in. 

Organization. — The society being a judicial body, is duly 
instituted under the provisions of the Civil Code. It has ten 
directors, including the president and two vice-presidents, to 
manage its general affairs. It has a standing council, composed 
of thirty councillors and three supervisors. At present the presi- 
dency is held by Count Matsukata and the vice-presidencies by 
Baron.Hanabusa and Baron Ozawa. The head office of the society 
is located in Tokyo. It has a branch office in each Fu and Ken 
(prefecture), with the governor of each Fu or Ken as its head. 
The society has also a board of committees in each Gun, Shi and 
Ku (administrative division), with the prefect or chief official of 
such division as its head, and a divisional board of committees in 
each Cho and Son (administrative subdivision), with the chief 
official of such subdivision as its head. These boards of committees 
are further supervised by the head of the branch office or the gover- 
nor of the Fu or Ken, under which comes the control of the 
administrative divisions and subdivisions in question. The whole 
Empire, in short, is brought under one well-organized system, by 
which the noble purposes of the society are accomplished, the 
divisions and the subdivisions of the society being distributed 
according to the administrative divisions and subdivisions. 

A branch office is also located in Formosa, with the chief of the 
civil administration of the islands as its head, and another in 
Hokkaido, with the governor of the island as its head. 

109 Digitized by V^OOg IC 

Members. — The members of the society, according to the 
statistics of October, 1903, numbered 685,633. 

Relief Staff. — The society has a relief staff, consisting of 
the directors, physicians, surgeons, the dispensers of medicine 
and the cleaners of surgical instruments, altogether numbering 
344, besides 2,373 female nurses, who have finished a course of 
two or three years* study, and Tjz n^ale nurses, who have finished 
the course of ten months' study. 

Hospital Ships. — The society has two hospital ships, the 
"Hakuai-maru" and "Kosai-maru," of 2,700 tons displacement 

Funds. — ^The fund of the society amounts to 8,418,000 yen. 

Hospital. — The hospital of the society is capable of accom- 
modating 199 patients in time of peace, and 279 patients in time 
of war. The director of the hospital is Baron Hashimoto, M. D. 

The Volunteer Lady Nursing Committees. — ^The Volunteer 
Lady Nursing Committees were founded in the twentieth year of 
Meiji (1887), with the special purpose of caring for the wounded 
and sick in time of war. It consists at present of philanthropic 
ladies of all classes, including the Imperial princesses and the 
wives and daughters of the nobles. The members meet regularly 
in time of peace for the purpose of studying the art of nursing, 
dressing the wounded, making of bandages, etc. The honorary 
presidency of the committees is held by Marchioness Nabeshima. 
The head office of the committees is located in Tokyo, and there 
are altogether thirty-two branch offices in principal districts. The 
members of the committees, those of the head office and all 
branches included, number 3,000. 

Membership. — ^The membership of the society consists of three 

classes : 

First. Honorary. 

Second. Special, or those who have rendered special service, 
or who have made a donation not less than 200 yen at one time. 

Third. Regular, or those who make an annual subscription 
of not less than three yen for a period of ten years, or who have 
made a single subscription of not less than twenty-five yen. 

^^Q Digitized by CjOOQIC 

The Work that the Society has Done. — Shortly after its 
institution, in 1788, the society received a great number of 
wounded and sick from both the Imperial army and insurgents 
during the civil war known as the Southwestern Revolt. In the 
Chino-Japanese war, in 1894-95, the society dispatched a relief 
its two hospital ships and 091 men and nurses from the relief 
staff to different localities and relieved 101,423 patients. • Again, 
during the North China disturbance, or Boxer uprising, it sent 
its two hospital shops and 491 men and nurses from the relief 
staff to the front, and relieved 11,348 patients, both Japanese and 

The society has also given succour to the injured and sick 
in time of earthquakes, inundation, fires and other emergencies 
in more than ten instances. 


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Japanese Exhibits at ttie World's Fair, 
St. Louis. 1904. 

Japan was- invited to participate in the Exposition commemo- 
rating the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory by the President 
of the United States. The invitation was conveyed by John 
Barrett, who visited Japan in the capacity of the Exposition's 
commissioner to Asia and Australasia. On this mission Mr. 
Barrett was accompanied by Theodore Hardee, his secretary, who 
is now assistant to Secretary W. B. Stevens, of the World's Fair. 
Mr. Barrett was followed by Mr. James E. Smith, one of the Ex- 
position directors, who went out as a special commissioner to 
Japan. Mr. Smith did excellent work and succeeded in securing 
positive assurances that the Japanese Government would par- 
ticipate. Messrs. D. C. Nugent and Goodman King, both Ex- 
position directors, also visited Japan and did good exploitation 
work. ' 

In January, 1903, the Japanese Government sent to St. Louis 
J. Kiuchi, then president of the Bureau of Commerce and In- 
dustry ; M. Isobe, secretary of the Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce, and K. Yabashi, director of the Department of Fi- 
nance, and Y. Wooyeno, as special conmiissioners to the Ex- 
position. They carried on the preliminary negotiations and se- 
cured the beautiful site now occupied by the Japanese Commis- 
sion, also space in the various exhibit palaces. The Japanese 
Government had meantime appropriated $400,000 and the For- 
mosan Government $50,000. In addition to these amounts, local 
governments and commercial bodies made appropriations aggre- 
gating more than $250,000. The Japan Mail Steamship Com- 
pany alone appropriated $65,000 for its exhibit. 

The commission was appointed in July, 1903, with Baron 
Tasuke Hirata, * Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, as its 
president. Baron Hirata has since been succeeded by Baron 
Keigo Kiyoura. The other members of the commission were 
Baron Masanawo Matsudaira, vice-president; Seiichi Tejima, 
commissioner-general; Hajime Ota, Harushige Yamawaki, Masa- 

112 • D git zed by Google 

haru Isobe, Kenkichi Yabashi, Yeitaro Okamota, Masanao Hani- 
wara, Minoru Oka, Hiromichi Shugio, Ushitaro Beppu, and 
Naozo Kanzaki. 

The Japanese commissioners now in the United States are 
Baron Masanao Matsudaira, vice-president to the Imperial Jap- 
anese Commission, residence, 320 Newstead Avenue; Hajime Ota, 
the acting Commissioner-General, residence, 5655 Maple Avenue; 
Haruki Yamawaki, Masanao Hanihara, Hiromichi Shugio, Ushi- 
taro Beppu, Naozo Kanzaki, Commissioners. 


The important work of installing the Japanese exhibits in the 
various exhibit palaces was performed by the Japan Exhibit 
Association, a body chartered by the Imperial Government. The 
Association was organized by fifty of the leading merchants and 
manufacturers of Japan, and it represents all the exhibitors of 
that country, numbering 20,000 or over. 

The president of the organization is Mr. K. Otani, who is 
assisted in the executive work by a Standing Committee, the 
members of which represent various large cities in the Empire. 
The members are K. Okura, S. Asano, I. Morimura, M. Doi, J. 
Nishimura, S. Suzuki, K Yamamoto and S. Kagawa. The active 
, work is performed by Mr. Y. Wooyeno, Director-General, now 
resigned, and four directors, Messrs. Kiyoshi Sugwa, M. Yabu, 
S. Kinkozan and M. Nagai. These four gentlemen came early 
to the World's Fair City and performed the work of receiving 
and directing the placing of the 80,000 or more exhibits from the 
Island Empire. 

The functions of the Exhibit Association are various and ex- 
ceedingly important. It received the exhibits in Japan, taking 
charge of recording them there and shipping them to St. Louis. 
When the numerous cases arrived they were received by the Asso- 
ciation's men, who attended to the unpacking and installation in the 
various exhibit palaces. During the course of the Exposition the 
Association has entire charge of the exhibits. It sells them and 
furnishes all information concerning them to visitors. At the 
close of the Fair it will wind up sales accounts and attend to 
returning to Japan such exhibits as are not sold or otherwise 

■t-tn Digitized by CjOOQ l€ 

disposed of. The Association also performs the function of in- 
troducing the Japanese goods into this country by furnishing mer- 
chants and other prospective buyers here with any information 
concerning them. In the event of any purchaser desiring to 
order duplicates or additional goods from Japan from the ex- 
hibits displayed, they can do so through the Exhibit Association, 
which has special charge of this work. The offices of the Ex- 
hibit Association are in the Imperial Japanese Pavilion, and in 
addition it has representatives in each building, where the Jap- 
anese exhibits are displayed. 

Great credit is due to the Association for the masterful 
manner in which it handled the difficult task of installation dur- 
ing the pre-Exposition and very early Exposition periods. An 
inspection of the exhibits will demonstrate the thoroughness with 
which it performed this work. 

Area, 150,000 Square Feet. 

The Japanese Garden is on the hillside south of Machinery 
Hall and Engine House. The grove of trees close to the east 
side of the garden and a broad thoroughfare along the opposite 
side add beauty 'to the garden and make the views from within 
superior to any in the Fair Grounds. Within the garden, the 
Japanese Pavilion, the Office Building, the Formosa Mansion, 
the Tea House, the Observation Cottage and Bazaar are artis- 
tically scattered. The hills and waterfalls, the lakes and bridges 
over them, the lawns studded with bright flowers, are all harmon- 
ized in an artistic unit of landscape gardening. Beautifully 
trained dwarf trees, many centuries old, were imported from 
Japan for the garden. The drooping wisteria and gay peony, 
scented lily and blushing maple are all thriving and rival each 
other in beauty and color. 

The building materials for the Japanese Pavilion were brought 
from Japan. It was built entirely by native carpenters after 
the style of Daimyo's garden — Goten, of about 400 years ago. 
The architectural style of the building is Heike. The artis- 
tically curved roofs, majestically projecting one upon the other, 
and the graceful symmetry of the effect, yet that strong and 

•t 1 4 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

massive appearance of the structure commands admiration. The 
interior of the building is decorated with a portrait of Her 
Majesty, the Empress. The exhibits of the Imperial Red Cross 
Society occupy one portion of the house. Ancient styles of 
dress are shown by an exhibit of gorgeous costumes. 

The Observation Cottage is constructed with lumber of va- 
ried species. The structure was modeled after a garden house 
or Shogun residence built in the Tokugawa dynasty about 200 
years ago. 

The building standing by the lake is a reproduction of Kin- 
kaku Temple of Kyoto, which was built in the Ashikaga regime, 
about 500 years ago. 

The Formosa Mansion is a fair sample of the characteristic 
native dwelling house. The Japanese tea will be served in the 
two buildings last mentioned. 


Japan's exhibit at the present Fair is varied and extensive. 
Her exhibits occupy places of prominence in the following twelve 
departments : Education, Varied Industries, Manufactures, Liberal 
Arts, Fine Arts, Machinery, Electricity, Transportation, Agriculture, 
Forestry, Fish and Game, Mines and Metallurgy; also in the 
Japanese Pavilion and Garden. The total space occupied by 
Japan covers over 282,455 square feet. The area is three times 
as great as that occupied by Japan at the Paris Exposition in 
1900, and three times as large as at Chicago in 1893. The num- 
ber of exhibits is relatively as great. The educational attain- 
ment, the development of manufacturing and the richness of the 
natural resources are well shown by the things exhibited. 


The Japanese Section in the Palace of Education is located 
in the central court and occupies 5,299 square feet. In ar- 
rangement and interest the displays compare favorably with those 
of European countries. Japanese educational systems are shown, 
from the primary department to the college and university. 
Hung on the walls' are numerous charts and photographs which 
give information concerning details of schools and education in 

Digitized bydOOQlC 

Japan. From the statistics it will be learned that about 94 per 
cent of persons of school age in Japan — that is, six to fourteen— 
are attending school. The exhibits of the Imperial School of 
Arts, and Girls' Industrial Schools are of special interest. These 
exhibits contain art works executed by the students which show 
great skill and artistic taste. The exhibit of the Technical 
Schools illustrates the full course in that class of institution, by 
articles of workmanship, photographs and statistics. Photographs 
of scenes in the Normal Schools show classes of women going 
through gymnastic exercises similar to those practiced in Europe 
and America. 

The Sappro Agricultural College, which was established in the 
'seventies, under the direction of American professors, has an 
interesting exhibit. This institution was the pioneer of agri- 
cultural schools in the Orient, and it has attained great promi- 
nence and popularity. 

The Imperial University exhibit shows the results of experi- 
ments carried on in the psychological laboratory by Prof. Y. 
Motora, also an apparatus for measuring variations in length by 
magnetism, invented by Prof. H. Nagaoka. Another interesting 
exhibit is the horizontal pendulum tromater displayed by the 
Imperial Earthquake Investigation Commission. 

Another part of the exhibit contains vaccines, bacterial cul- 
tures, and various apparatus showing the development of medical 
science in Japan for the prevention of contagious diseases. 

In the section devoted to the detective bureau, all things per- 
taining to police and the investigation of criminals are shown. 
As to the development of the Japanese police department and the 
regulations governing that body, full information will be ob- 
tainable at that place. 


The Japanese fine arts exhibits in the Japanese Section of the 
Art Palace were examined and selected by the National Jury of 
Selection composed of thirty-one judges, who were appointed by 
the Imperial Government of Tokyo. The total number of ex- 
hibits thus selected is less than 300. All the important branches 
of the Japanese art, however, are represented in the collection. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

The colkction includes Japanese paintings on silk and paper, 
either mounted in the kakemono style (hanging) or in frames. 
Jn these almost all the existing schools are well represented. There 
are also oil and water-color paintings by Japanese artists who 
are working in the European method; some interesting examples 
of sculptures in wood, ivory and bronze; artistic cloisonne and 
enamels; artistic metal objects of rare workmanship; charming 
examples of lacquer wares, the most delicate Japanese art pro- 
duction ; a few remarkable hand embroideries and silk weavings ; 
some famous cut velvet pieces, and a few original designs for 
art work and architecture. 

A careful inspection and critical study of the collection will 
prove that the Japanese artists still retain their old traditions 
and artistic skill. 


Japan's exhibits in this building occupy an area of 27,384 
square feet, located in the extreme .southwest corner. The ex- 
hibits consist of manufactured articles in silk, cotton, straw, 
leather, fiber, paper, bamboo, wood, etc. 

There is a fine display of raw silk. Near this display is an 
exhibit of a Japanese silk worm nursery. Matting is largely 
displayed, the collection containing some of the finest varieties 
ever seen in this country. The Japanese matting industry is 
growing rapidly. The exports amount in value to more than 
7,000,000 yen annually. Straw braids also occupy an important 
place in the section. 


By far the most beautiful and important exhibits of Japan at 
the Fair are those in the Palace of Varied Industries. The sec- 
tion occupies one of the best locations in the building and covers 
an area of 54,737 square feet. It is entered on the north by a 
magnificent gateway built in imitation of the famous "Yomeimon'* 
in Nikko. The exhibits include the very finest examples of Jap- 
anese handicraft in embroidery, porcelain, Japan ware, bronze, 
chinaware, cloisonne, gold and silver ware, ivory, screens, jewelry, 
cabinets, furniture, wood carving, antimony, lacquer, etc. These 

117 Digitized by CjOOQiC 

articles represent the highest artistic ideals of Japanese workmen 
and are famous the world over for their beauty and excellence. 
Similar goods are exported from Japan to all countries of the 
civilized world, where they meet a ready market. Several hundred 
pages could be devoted to describing these exhibits, but in a 
book of this kind it is impossible to give the space required. 

Among the finest articles in the section is the collection placed 
in the rooms on either side of the monumental gateway. Here 
is a pair of embroidered screens valued at $9,000 and a pair of 
cloisonne vases worth the same amount; a silver vase, $4,500; a 
cloisonne cabinet, $1,750; an embroidered hanging, $1,050, and an 
ivory carving costing $1,000. 

Passing through the gate the visitor will find on his right fine 
bronze statues, porcelain, ivory carving and cloisonne. At the 
left are silk screens and embroideries, china, porcelain, lacquer 
and Japan wares. 

Along the south side of the section are Kawashima's model of 
a Japanese room and the "Kyoto Salon," the latter exhibited by 
the Kyoto Chamber of Commerce. Both of these are splendid 
examples of Japanese workmanship and artistic decoration. To 
the left of them is located the reproduction of a room in the 
Palace of Nikko, exhibited by Yamanaka & Co., of Osaka. This 
room cost over $45,000. 


The mineral resources of Japan are well represented in this 
building. The Japanese space is directly opposite the west en- 
trance and covers 6,993 square feet. Among the interesting 
features of the exhibit is a model of Manda Pit of the Mitsui 
Mining Company in the Miike Colliery. This mine is one of 
the largest in the world, its output amounting to 2,000 tons 
per day. There are also models of the Mitsubishi Coal & 
Metal Mining Company's plants. One model of Fujita & Com- 
pany's Kosaka mine and a model of the Ashio copper mine show 
the vein system of mining practiced in Japan. The Ashio mine, 
which is the property of J. Furukawa, is one of the largest copper 
mines* in existence. The exhibit of the Hokkaido Colliery and 
Raidway Company is one of the important features in the section, 

118 Digit zed by Google 

and other exhibit? are crude oil of the Japan Oil Company ; coir 
liery of K. Yasukawa; iron ore of Amamiya; mining fuses of 
Murakami and sulphur of Hiromi. 

In addition to the mineral displays proper, the exhibit contain? 
numerous statistical maps and information variously presented, 
relative to the mining industry in Japan. The records of the 
Mining Institution of Japan and of the Associated Colliery Owners 
of the Province of Chikuzen and Buzeu and the Government 
Mining Bureau are very complete and will prove of interest to 
persons interested in mining. On the outside of the main en- 
closure are a series of square blocks showing the production of 
gold and silver in Japan during the last 28 years. From these 
it is learned that the production of silver has increased from 
224842 ounces in 1875 to 2,323,673 ounces in 1895 and 1,856,102 
ounces in 1902. The production of gold increased from 5,598 
ounces in 1875 to 95,552 ounces in 1902. 


In the Palace of Agriculture the Japanese Exhibit occupies an 
area of 8,667 square feet, located near the north entrance. 
The installation booths and fixtures are simple, but in excellent 
taste, and are designed so as to show the various displays to the 
best possible advantage. 

Tea, one of the leading products of Japan, forms the most 
important exhibit of the space. It is shown at the main entrance 
to the exhibit where the decoration includes two figures of wo- 
men in a tea ceremony. At the side of the display is a register 
for visitors. Those who put their names and addresses in this 
book will receive samples of tea from the men in charge of the 

There is a large exhibit of shoyu or soy, a famous Japanese 
sauce, made from beans. This sauce is in as common use in 
Japan as salt and pepper are in the United States. It is used as 
a relish on the table, also for cooking and salad dressing. Soy 
is wholesome and exceedingly cheap, which qualities, combined 
with its splendid flavor, makes it a most desirable article Of diet. 

Sake, the national drrnk of the Japanese, is al^o well repre- 
sented in the exhibit. This beverage is made from rice and is 

, J< g Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

mild and delightful in flavor. It is perfectly clear and has a 
rather tart taste, something between sherry and champagne. 

Peanuts, the snake-gourd or Japanese sponge, an<l ginger, all 
of which articles are largely exported to this country, are dis- 
played in profusion. Among the other exhibits are jelly of wheat, 
fruits, cereals, mineral waters and nuts. Rice, which is by far 
the most important agricultural product of Japan, is included in 
the exhibit. The annual yield of rice in Jtipan is equal in value 
to about 400,000,000 yen or $200,000,000. 

The walls of the exhibit are hung with tables of agricultural 
statistics, photographic views of farming districts and statistical 


Directly opposite the main section is the Formosan exhibit, 
which in many respects contains as much of interest as the exhibit 
of Japan proper. The Island of Formosa, which covers about 
13,419 square miles, possesses great agricultural resources. For- 
mosa was ceded by China to Japan at the close of the China- 
Japan war. Its population is about 3,000,000. 

The installation is in every way typically Formosan. Sur- 
rounding the exhibit is the outer framework of a Formosan house 
of the better type. Within this are arranged exhibits of the prin- 
cipal products of the island. 

At one end of the enclosure is the great tower of solid camphor, 
while at the opposite end is the display of oolong tea. These are 
the most important products of Formosa. The annual product 
of tea is 20,000,000 pounds, and of camphor 3,200,000 pounds. 
Over two-thirds of all the camphor used in the world is pro- 
duced in Formosa. 

Tamsui hats or "Formosan Panamas," are on display. It is 
only recently that this hat has been manufactured, but it has be- 
come very popular in all parts of the world where it has been 
introduced, and it promises to be one of the important industries 
of the island 

Hemp and pineapple fiber are two more products of Formosa 
which are well represented in the display. 

120 Digitized by GoOglC 

There are several beautiful pieces of furniture manufactured 
from camphor wood. Besides being unusually handsome, this 
furniture has the advantage of being proof against moths and all 
insects. Among other exhibits may be mentioned safrol oil, pea- 
nuts, sugar and various kinds of fruits. 

Mr. S. Tajima, conmiissioner from Formosa, and Mr. M. 
Isoda, assistant commissioner, are in charge of the Formosan 


The Japanese Section in the Palace of Electricity is located in 
the northwest corner and covers only i,iDO square feet. The 
exhibit is small as compared with Japan's showing in other build- 
ings, but this must not be taken to mean that electricity for all 
purposes is not in general use throughout the Empire. There 
are numerous waterfalls in Japan and these are used for power in 
generating electricity for factories and lighting. Numerous small 
towns are lighted by electricity, the power for which is furnished 
by waterfalls and streams. 


In the Palace of Forestry, Fish and Game, the Japanese section 
covers some 6,888 square feet, located about the middle of tlie 
building. The forestry exhibits include specimens of nearly every 
variety of wood grown in the Japanese Empire. There are also 
other products of the forest such as camphor, wax, turpentine, 
oils and mushrooms. The lay of forests in Japan is clearly 
shown by several large maps. 

Japanese canned fish form a large portion of the fisheries ex- 
hibit. The excellence of these articles has proved a surprise to 
foreigners. They include salt mackerel, salt herring, oysters, 
clams, eel, anchovies, and many other varieties of fish. In addi- 
tion there are exhibits of cod-liver oil, aga-aga, dried seawejd 
and shells. 

There are models of fishing junks of every tjrpe used in Jap- 
anese waters. Apparatus, maps and pictures illustrating fisheries 
in Japan form an interesting feature of the exhibit. 

"121 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Pearls, one of the principal products of the Japanese fisheries, 
are displayed attractively. Among the most beautiful pearls is 
one worth $12,000, exhibited by M. Mikikoto, of Tokyo. Valuable 
and beautiful coral, worth many thousands of dollars, and some 
fine furs, are also exhibited in this section. 


Japan's exhibit in the Palace of Transportation occupies a 
space in the southwest corner of the structure. The displays of 
which it is made up were carefully selected with the view of show- 
ing the wonderful progress made by Japan in its methods of trans- 
portation and communication during the last four or five decades. 
The installation is elaborate and typically Japanese, all the frame 
work having been manufactured in Japan and shipped here in 
sections, where it was set up by native artisans. The exhibit 
covers an area of 14,904 square feet, every inch of which is 
utilized to the best possible advantage. 

By far the most attractive and injportant feature of this ex- 
hibit is the reception room of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha (Japan 
Mail and Steamship Company), which contains the display of 
that famous line. Another feature of great interest is a collection 
of relief maps, which graphically show means of communication 
and transportation throughout the Island Empire. 

The Nippon Yusen Kaisha exhibit is one of the most costly 
^nd elaborate displays which has been made by any individual 
or corporation at the World's Fair. In all its furnishings and ap- 
pointments it typifies the highest ideals of Japanese decorative art. 
There are three distinct styles of architecture involved: the 
severe, the ornate and the current, each of which is represented 
with many variations and modifications. The entire decoration 
scheme is based on the chrysanthemimi and catalpa — flowers which 
in Japan are symbolic of nobility and supremacy. Evidences of 
these flowers, liberally treated, are seen everywhere. The de- 
signs had their origin for the most part in the works of Jakuchu, 
a famous Japanese artist of the early eighteenth century. 

The tapestries in which the designs are worked are Kawa- 
shima's Tsuzurc-Nishiki, which are among the finest prodoced 
anywhere in the world. On the cciKng alone the decorations 

•|22 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

include some twenty-seven varieties of floral designs, done in 
brilliant colors. The designs on the walls, cornices, shafts, 
rafters and fire-place are splendidly worked out and bear the 
closest inspection. The door frames are of Tagayasan wood, 
decorated with chrysanthemum arabesques in gold lacquer, while 
the handles are cloisonne. The carpets, which are of pure silk, 
are marked with a design of broken waves, rippling from the 
corners and meeting at the center. 

The chairs and tables are upholstered in fine Japanese silk 
embroidery. It is estimated that this room, with its furnishings 
and cost of installing, required an expenditure of $50,000 by the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 

This corporation is one of the largest steamship companies in 
the world, owning 80 ocean steamers, having a gross tonnage of 
over 260,000 tons. There are many things in connection with 
its exhibit which show the growth of the company and its pres- 
ent equipment and properties. Among these are several scien- 
tifically gotten-up tables, dozens of pictures of vessels and len 
beautiful models of the company's ocean greyhounds. Of these 
models, the "Aki Maru," "Taugo Maru" and *'Nikko Maru,*' 
vessels of 6,000 tons each, are worthy of special notice. They 
were built by Japanese workmen in the Mitsubishi dockyard at 

One very interesting table shown in the exhibit is the Chart 
of the Hydrographical Bureau of the Japanese Navy. The Japa- 
nese Navy was the pioneer in exploring waters of the Far East, 
and the present chart was drawn entirely without the aid of 
foreigners. In connection with the splendid work shown in the 
chart should be mentioned the names of Admiral Yanagi and 
Rear Admiral Timotsuki, directors of the Hydrographical Bureau. 
The Nippon Yusen Kaisha is the sole agent for charts issued 
by the Bureau. Messrs. H. Fujishima and T. Takayanaki, 
representing the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, have charge of the 
exhibit and will furnish any information concerning it. 

Opposite the N. Y. K. reception room are three large relief 
maps, exhibited by the Transportation Association. The first 
of these shows Japan proper; the second shows Japan and parts 
of China, Siberia and China; the third shows the mainland with 

J23 Digitized by CjOOQ iC 

its dependent and foreign ports of the Far East. These maps 
are admirably executed and bring out clearly cities, towns, val- 
leys, mountains, seaports, docks, light houses, etc., besides 
steamship, railroad telegraph, telephone and sub-marine cable 
lines. For persons interested in the geography of the Far East 
these maps furnish endless and interesting study. Hung around 
the maps are 174 photographic views of scenes in the Land of the 
Rising Sun. These photographs were taken with the object of 
showing the beauties of Japanese landscapes and features of city 
and country. Near the topographical maps is hung a large em- 
broidered mercantile map of the world, showing the Japanese 
steamship routes from other countries which connect with Japan. 
Mr. J. Hokkio has charge of this exhibit. 

The Department of Communication and Transportation has 
an exhibit showing the system and growth of the Japanese postal 
service; also of telegraph and other means of communication. 
The Japanese postal service is one of the most efficient and 
advanced in the world. 


In Block Ti of the Palace of Liberal Arts, close to the 
entrance leading to the Wireless Telegraph Tower and the Press 
Building, is a live exhibit of Japanese typesetting, illustrating the 
methods of making a newspaper in Japan. The exhibit occupies 
a space of only 400x89 feet, but it is complete in every detail, and 
admirably demonstrates the intracacy of Oriental, printing. 
Hajime Hoshi, the author of this book, who has for the last four 
years published at No. 203 Broadway, N. Y., "Japan and Amer- 
ica," a monthly magazine in the English language, and the 
"Japanese American Commercial Weekly," a Japanese publica- 
tion, is making the exhibit. 

Japanese type includes Chinese characters and the Japanese 
alphabet. The former was introduced into Japan in the second 
century. The alphabet was invented by the Japanese in the ninth 
century, and is called "Kana." It consists of only 47 letters, 
while the Chinese written language has over 40,000 different char- 
acters. In the usual daily paper about 10,000 to 15,000 charac- 
ters are used. In the printing exhibit there are shown over 

124 D git zed by Google 

200,000 Chinese type. The author for a time published the 
Japanese section of "Japan and America" in "Romaji," that is, 
Roman letters or characters, with the view of impressing Japanese 
readers with the fact that the Roman alphabet for writing the 
Japanese language is the most important reform movement in 
Japan at the present time. Visitors will notice how the com- 
positors run hither and thither to find the different letters. With 
this may be contrasted the ease of composition by means of the 
Linotype machine, which is exhibited near at hand. Over 1,200 
dailies, weeklies and monthlies are published in Japan. 


This is a private concession controlled by the Fair Japan 
Company, which was organized by Y. Kushibiki, S. Arai, and 
several prominent business men of St. Louis. The president of 
the company is J. M. Carpenter, a local real estate dealer, and 
Mr. Kushibiki is business manager. 

The Gateway of Fair Japan is a reproduction of the famous 
portal at Nikko. The gateway is designed by Mr. Sato, and 
buiWed under the supervision of Mr. S. Imura, member of Kus- 
hibiki and Arai. It is one of the highest buildings o'njthe Pike 
and cost $25,000. Inside the concession is "A Street of Tokyo." 
The principal attraction is a Japanese Theater, in which 80 native 
actors and actresses give performances. Other features are the 
tea house, with fifteen Geisha girls; the Fukushima Art Collec- 
tion ; a beautiful Japanese garden and the Kimono house. 

This Nio-mon (the gate with two temple guardians, Brahma 
and Indra) was erected about 300 years ago as the main entrance 
gate to a very old temple of Taikozan Seionji at Furumachi 
village in the Province of Hidachi by Lord Satake Giobu-Tayu 
in memory of his father. 

Lord Satake engaged the most celebrated architects, painters 
and sculptors of his time from all parts of the Empire for build- 
ing and decorating this gate. The pictures on the ceiling were 
painted by Kano, about fifty years after its construction. Among 
the wooden carved images there are many remarkable examples 
of Japanese sculpture. The two sacred dogs are said to be the 
work of Unkei, considered one of the greatest masters of Japan. 

^ft_ Digitized by CjOOQIC 

The old bronze bell, cast about 400 years ago, is interesting 
for its historical connections. The repairs and restorations of 
the gate and its decorations were very carefully carried out by 
Mr. K. Sano,- of Tokyo, who employed many competent artists 
for the work. The gate is forty-five feet high, its width thirty 
feet and its depth eighteen feet. 

Just inside the gateway is the Japanese bazaar, in which all 
kinds of attractive articles from Japan are on sale. Interested in 
the bazaar are Shimarmura & Co., of Yokahoma; Suzuki & Co., 
of Tokyo ; I. Ando, B. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, of Nagoya ; Z. 
Hashimoto and H. Imura, of Yokohama, and others. 

Just east of the gateway is a restaurant conducted by Shibata 
& Arai, where one may secure good meals, served both in Japa- 
nese and American styles. The manager is T. Yamaji. 


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K Ko-ji-Ki; Records of Ancient Shi, B. C. 697. Translated by 

'^ Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan. Vol. 10, Supp. 1882. 

" History of Japan. 1541-1670. E. Kampfer. 

)r Japan as It Was and Is. 1541-1855. R. Hildreth, Boston, 
Diary. 1615—1622. R. Cocks. '' < ^ ' 
Memorials of the Empire of Japan in Sixteenth Cen- 
tury. T. Rundall, London, 1850. ' 

/Capital of the Tycoon. Sir Rutherford A. Alcock, London, 

^ 1863. 

. Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and 
Japan. L. Oliphant, New York, 1860. 

• Perry's Expedition to Japan. J. S. Sewall. 


- Young Japan. ' (1858—1879.) 2 v. J. R. Black, Yokohama 

and London, 1880. 
>The Mikado's Empire. W. E. Griffis. 
IT Feudal and Modern Japan. A. M. Knapp, Boston, 1900. 
A Leading Men of Japan. With a Historical Summary of the 

Empire. Char. Lanman, Boston, 1882. 
V What Will Japan Do? A Forecast. J. Morris, London, 1898. 
^ A Handbook of Modern Japan. E. W. Clement. Chicago: 

A. C. McClurg & Co., 1903. 
^ New Japan, the Land of the Rising Sun. S. Mossmann, 

London, 1863. 
, The Empire OF Japan . Published at Philadelphia Centennial 
^ Exhibition, 1876. 


I.^The Industrial Revolution in Japan. Count Okuma. 

North American Review, v. 171, pp. 677-691. 
2^The Industrial Transition in Japan. Ono. Baltimore: 

Amer. Econom. Ass'n. Pub., 1886. 
3.1. The Industries of Japan. J. J. Rein. 
4.' Industry. Department of Agriculture and Commerce, 1900. 
5. j^ Japan in the Beginning of the Twentieth Century. 

H. Yamawaki. ^ j 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

127 ^ 


1. History of Banking op Ai,i. Nations. Edition of Yale 
University. Here the history of Japanese banking can be 

2. Report on Adoption of thb Gold Standard in Japan. 
Count M. Matsukati, Tokyo. 

3. FiNANCiAi. Condition of Japan. Bankers' Magazine, v. 
36, p. 583 and following. 

4. Report on Taxation in Japan. J. H. Gubbins, Yoko- 
hama, 1884. 

5. Land Taxation in Japan. G. Droppers, Nation, v. 53, pp. 
100 and following. 


1. Gbnerai. Vibw of Commerce and Industry in the Em- 
pire of Japan. Edited by the Bureau of Noshomusho, 
Tokyo, 1893. 

2. Commerce With Japan. Hunt*8 Merchant Magazine, v. 1, 
p. 208, New York. 

3. CoMMERCiAi. Mission to Japan. Littell's Living Age, v. 
38, pp. 698 and following, Boston. 

4. The Past and Present of Japanese Commerce. 


1. Yamato Damashi; the Spirit of Old Japan. A. Diosy, 

2. KOKORO. Hints and Echoes of Japanese Inner Life. Hearn. 
Robe, 1895. 

3. The Heart of Japan. C. Ludlow Brownell. New York: 
McClure, Clarence & Co., 1903. 

4. BuSHiDO. Dr. I. Nitobe, Boston and Tokyo. 

5. The Soul of the Far East. P. Lowell, Boston, 1883. 


1. A History of Japanese Literature. W. G. Aston. 
New York: Appleton. 1899. 

2. The Classical Poetry of the Japanese. B. H. Cham- 
berlain. Boston: Osgood & Co., 1880. i, K\ 

3. Japan; Its History, Arts and Literature." €'. T. Brink- 
ley. Boston: Millet Co., 1902. 

4. Chushingura. Dickons' translation, Yokohama, 1875. 

5. Chushingura. lyouye's translation, Tokyo. 

6. Genjimonog atari. Suyematsu's English translation, 1882. 

7. Japanese Love Story. London Society, v. 31, p. 138, 

8. Taketori Monogatari. London, 1886. ' - \ V— r ^^ 

9. Japanese Romance. Sir D. Wedderburn. Fortnightly 
Review, v. 31, pp. 106-118. 

<2g Digitized by CjOOQLC 


■^1. Thb Japanese Court in the Intern ationai. Exhibition. 
W. Burges. Gentleman's Magazine, Sept., 1862, p. 243, 8vo., 

' 2. Notice Sur L* Empire du Japan et Sur sa Participa- 
tion A L* Exposition Universeli^e de Vienna en 1873. 85 
pp., 8 vo. Yokohama, 1873. 
3. iNTERNATiONAi. EXHIBITION OF 1876. Catalogue of the 
Japanese Section and Descriptive Notes on the Industry and 
Agriculture of Japan. Philadelphia, 1876. 

' 4. Exposition Universei.i.e de Paris en 1878. Paris, 1878. 

^ 5. Exposition Universei,i,e de Paris en 1889. Paris, 1889. 

i. 6. Japanese Exhibition in London, 1890. Spectator, v. 64, 
pp. 373 and following, London. 

r 7. Exposition Nation ai.e Japan aise en 1895 a Kyoto. Re- 
vue Francaise du Japan, v. 1, p. 180, Tokyo, 1893. 


. The Customs of the Country. Tales of New Japan. Mrs. 
H. Fraser. New York: McMillan Co., 1899. 

y H^DA, THE Samurai; a Story of Modern Japan. W. E. 
Griffis, Boston, 1890. 

^ Japan in History, Folk Lore and Art. W. E. Griflfis, Bos- 
ton. 1894. 

' In Ghosti^y Japan. L. Heam, Boston, 1899. 

' Shadowings. L. Hearn, Boston, 1900. 

iT MiTo Yashiki; a Tai^e of OI.D Japan. H. Maclay. New 
York: Putnam's Sons. 1890. 

V Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings. E. S. Morse. 

New York: Harper & Bro., 1889. 
^ T^e Garden of Japan. F. T. Piggott, London, 1892. 

^EiGHT Years in Japan. E. G. Holtham, London, 1883. 
y Japan. Samuel Mossanii London, 1880. 

/Japanese Life, Love and Legend. Wm. Conn, London. 1885. 

^Japanese Giri^s and Women. A. M. Bacon, Boston, 1891. 

iA Japanese Interior. A. M. Bacon, Boston, 1893. 


-^ Revell Co. 


Y J^ANDBOO^ OF Modern Japan. E. W. Clement. 
y Japan and Her Peopi^e. Anna Hartshorne. 

/ ^apan in Transition. R. J. Stafford. 
/ Japan «r Today. A. Stead. '' • 
/ The Gist of Japan. R. B. Peery. 
y. Advance Japan, a Nation Thoroughi^y in Earnest. J. 

Morris, London, 1895. 
y Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. Issued at 

Yokohama, 1872 to 1900. 

* 29 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Land of the Morning. Dixon, Edinburgh, 1882. 

Gi^BANiNGS FROM JAPAN.. Dickson, Edinburgh, 1889. 

A Budget of Letters from Japan. A, C. Maclay, New 

York. 1886. 
Women of the Orient. R. C. Houghton, Cincinnati, 1878. 


1. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan, Inci,uding 
Law of Ei.ECTion and Law of Finance. New York: 
Brcntano. 1890. 

2. Constitutional Government in Japan. K. Oishi. 
Arena, v. 4, pp. 440 and following, Boston. 

3. OuTUNE OF Constitution of Japan. K. Kaneko. Atlan- 
tic Monthly, v. 65, pp. 187 and following, Boston. 

4. The Constitutional Development of Japan. T. lye- 
naga. Johns Hopkins Uni. Studies in Historical and Political 
Science, Ninth Series, No. 9. 

5. Constitution of Japan. W. E. Griffis. Forum, v. 7, 
pp. 404 and following. 

6. Commentaries on the Japanese Constitution. Count 
H. Ito. Translated into English by Miyoji Ito, Tokyo, 1889. 

7. On the Establishment of a Parliament in Japan. 
Suburo Iwao, London, 1875. 


1. Case of the International Law During China-Japanese 
War. Takahashi. 

2. La Guerre Sino-Japenaise. Ariga. 

3. Law of Collision— Warship vs. Merchant Vessel 
(Admiralty), Matsunami, London, 1900. . 

4. Consular Jurisdiction. G. H. Skidmore, Tokyo, 1887. 


1. Treaties and Conventions Between the Empire of 
Japan and Other Powers, Since March, 1854, up to 1884. 
Published by Kokubunsha, Tokyo, 1884. 

2. Treaties and Conventions Between Japan and Other 
Powers; Revised Treaties of Japan. Published by Mar- 
wya, Tokyo, 1899. 


3. Japan's Entry Iwto the World's Politics. G. Drop- 
pers. International Monthly, v. 1, pp. 162-187. 

4. ^'Japan's Accession to the Comity of Nations." A. V. 
Siebold, London, 1901. 

< OA Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

(For the official documents concerning the international relations 
of Japan, see) : 

VT 1. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1870-:1903. 
Y 2. Diplomatic Correspondence of the ttnited States, 
^ 1860-1869, Washington. D. C. 
y 3. British and Foreign State Papers, 1854-1899, London, 

^4. Paruamenta^ Papers. 

jcThe Intercourse Between the United States and Japan. 
I. Otta Nitobe, Baltimore, 1891. 


1.' The Problem of Asia. H. Mahan, Boston, 1900. 

2v The Mastery of the Pacific. A. R. Colquhoun. New 
York: Macmillan Co., 1902. 

3^Japan AND THE PACIFIC. M. Inagaki. New York; Scrib- 
ner, 1890. 

4^ Problems of the Far Bast. G. N. Curzon, Westmin- 
ster, 1896. 
, 5f People and Politics of the Far East. H. Norman. 


^.f Political Parties in Japan. J. H. Wigmore. Nation, 

V. 51, pp. 145 and following. 
^; Political Parties in Japan. W. E. Griffis. North 

American Review, 1902. 
— &, Political Progress in Japan. W. E. Griffis. Forum, 

V. 10, pp. 701 and following. 
^. Politics in Japan in 1886-87. E. A. Lawrence. Andover 

Review, v. 7, pp. 113 and following, Boston. 
"-5-. Parliamentary Election in Japan. T. M. McNair. 

Continental Monthly, v. 4, pp. 333 and following. New York. 
-->4. Political Development. Saturday Review, v. 57, p. 287, 

London . 
"-7,«The New Parliament in Japan. J. H. Wigmore. Nation, 

V. 51, pp. 265 and following. 
'cS/ The Reaction iK Japan. J. H. Wigmore. Nation, v. 52, 

pp. 237 and following. 
9. The Parliamentary Days in Japan. J. H. Wigmore. 

Scribner*s Monthly Magazine, v. 10, pp. 243 and following, 

New York. 
'' 10. Starting a Parliament in Japan. J. H. Wigmore. 

Nation, v. 52, pp. 357 and following. 
Kll, Political iDEAfOF Japan. Carl K. Kawakaini, Tokyo, 1903. 


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-^ 1. A History of thb Twbi^ve Japanbsk Buddhist Sects. 

B. Naiijio» Tokyo, 1886. 
< 2. Religion in Japan: Shintoisii, Buddhism, Christianity. 

G. A. Cobbold, I^ndon. 1894. ' 

3. The Doctrines of Vic hore w. Kobayashi, Tokyo. 1893. 

4. Rei«igion of Japan. P. Lowell. Atlantic Monthly, v. 60, 
p. 836. 


. History of the Eari^y Mission Century. 
* Eari«y Church in Japan. Yokohama, 1884. 
X The Reugion^of Japan. E. W. Griffis. 
/ Maker of JAPAN«,.NfXffMA. Rev. J. D. Davis, 
y American Missroi^iN Japan. Gordon. 

/ ■ 


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Gifu Province— Its Products , 145-149 

Kinkozan, S., Porcelain Manufactures 167 

Pukuokaken Sakg Brewers* Guild 190 

Hokkaido Tanko Railway Co 195 

Japan Mat Manufacturers' & Traders' Association 194 

Mikimoto's Pearls 179 

Mitsui Mining Co 174-175 

Nakamura Tea Refining Co 144 

Nihonmatsu Silk Filature 191 

Nippon Yusen Kaisha ..." 204-205 

Ota Paper Manufacturing Co 143 

Osaka Itsumigun Agriculturers' Association 165 

Osaka Shoyu Manufacturers' Association 161 

Takata Company 173 

Takei Paper Manufacturing Co 150 

Totomi Ginger, Snake-Gourd, Cayenne Pepper, and Peanuts, 

Traders' Guild 136-137 

Tokyo Exhibitors' Association 201-202 

Toyo Kisen Kaisha 206 

Tsukiji Sho)ru Manufacturing 197 

Shizuoka Lacquer Association 138-139 

Shizuoka Paper Manufacturers' Association 142 

Shidzuoka Raw Silk Traders' Association 203 

Shidzuoka's Green Tea 134-135 

Shoami Metal Works 170-171 

Yabu Meizan's Porcelain 164 

Yamasaki Suckichi 198 

Yamanaka & Co 157 

Yokohama Specie Bank 182 



by Google 



Principal Place In Japan YaDCPN TPA 
for the Production of ViriLLM I CM. 

On account of its excellent flavor the Japanese green tea has 
gained a world-wide reputation , and is considered an indispens- 
able beverage in many countries. In the United States of 
America and in Canada it is especially prized. The tea which 
is annually exported from Japan to these two countries amounts 
to more than 50,000,000 pounds. One-half of this quantity is 
produced in Shidzuoka prefecture, and the prospects are bright 
for an increase in the quantity raised. 

Shidzuoka prefecture is situated in the Tokaido at the foot of 
Mt. Fuji. The scenery in the province is very picturesque, and, 
in addition, it possesses a* rich and fertile soil and a climate 
incomparably mild. Hence, the tea produced in, it has, from 
olden times, been considered the best in Japan, and no wonder 
that it is so much prized in the above-named countries. 


134 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

In this prefecture, tea-plantations most abound in the districts 
of Abe, Shida, Haibara and Ogasa. In these districts several 
firms have recently been formed whieh export tea directly* to 
the United States and Canada. 

The names of these firms are as follows : 

The Toyo Tea Trading Co*, Ltd., Shidzuoka. 

The Full QoshI Kwalsha, Shidzuoka. 

The Shidzuoka Selcha GoshI Kwatsha, Shidzuoka. 

The Pulleda Selcha Boekl Kabushlka Kwalsha, Fulleda. 

The Tokal Selcha Kwalsha, BJIri. 

The Nakamura Selcha Shoten, about five nHes south 

of Kanaya. 
The Maklno-hara Selcha Boekl Kabusblkl Kwalsha, 

The Kyoekl Kwalsha, about three miles south of Kak- 


These firms are all furnished with the latest machinery, and 
prepare several million pounds of tea annually for exportation. 
They are all located along the line of the Tokaido Railway, and 
' may be conveniently visited by the general public. We cordially 
invite the tea merchants abroad to visit our tea plantation and 
our firms. 


Japanese- American 
Commercial Weekly 

An Illustrated, Industrial 
Commercial Review of Reviews 

Aim of Japanese-American Commercial Weekly is to give the 
Japanese live information concerning American markets and trade. 
Copies are mailed every week to the best and most progressive 
business firms throughout Japan. Advertisement rate on application. 



203 Broadwag. Block 11 Liberal Arts Palace. 

135 Digitized by Google 

The Totomi Qinger, Snake-Goard, Cayenne 
Pepper, and feanuts, Traders' 

These enjoy, among other agricultural products of 
Shidzuoka, a very high reputation on foreign markets. 
As the Guild is making unsparing efforts to secure further 
development regarding their cultivation and manufacture, 
the quality of these commodities rapidly improves, and the 
demand for them increases in proportion, so that they will 
attain, in the near future, importance in the export trade 
second only to green tea in the agricultural industry of 
this prefecture. 

Ginger^ which is used in making various condiments, 
ginger ale, medicine, etc., is • abundantly exported. The 
Shidzuoka ginger is particularly rich in pungency, flavor, 
and free from ashes, and as it is carefully dried its qualities 
are well preserved. Hence it has now almost surpassed 
the Jamaica ginger on foreign markets. As a result of 
several years' zealous study made by Mr. Risaburo Ota, 
director of the above mentioned guild, a method of drying 
it in an exceptionally clean way by means of steam has 
lately been invented. Thus, the Shidzuoka ginger has 
the honor of being used by the Imperial Household of Japan, 
and also it has been awarded many prizes of honor— silver 
medals, first-class bronze medals, etc. — at exhibitions at 
home and abroad. The Shidzuoka ginger finds a ready 
market in many countries, but by far the largest quantity 
is exported to the United States. The yield during the 
year 1903 was put at 4,644,507 pounds, which amounted 
to $226,414 in value. 

Snake- gourd, or plant sponge, furnishes a material for 
lining hats and caps, and the insoles of boots and shoes, 

136 Digitized by Google 

and is also used in making mats. Besides, it is much ap- 
plied to surgical use in lieu of ordinary sponges. Hence it is 
now exported to meet a growing demand. The plant sponge 
from Shidzuoka is incomparably good, for it has very fine 
fibres which make it extremely pliant, and it is much whiter 
and glossier than sponges of a similar kind. It is exported 
to America, Germany, France, India, China, and other 
countries. The total production of snake-gourd in 1903 
was about 3,000,000 in number, valued at $45,000. 

Cayenne pepper is ifsed in making various condiments, 
also as a seasoning material of sauce, and as a preservative 
of food. The demand for pepper cultivated in Shidzuoka 
is very large both at home and abroad, for it is very fine 
in appearance, rich in pungent quality, and dried to perfec- 
tion. A variety called the **Taka-no-tsume" is especially 
esteemed in England and America. Cayenne pepper is a 
food indispensable in the hottest and coldest climes. 
America, Europe, China, India, etc., are the chief markets 
for thfe pepper. The crop during the year 1903 aggre- 
gated over 2,700,000 pounds, which realized $75,000. 

Peanuts are not only used in making confectionery and 
frying oil, but also they are eaten as light refreshment. 
The peanuts grown in Shidzuoka recommend themselves 
to an extensive demand, as they are singularly richin oily 
quality. They are chiefly exported to America, Australia, 
China, and other countries. The amount obtained during 
the year 1903 was estimated at 50,000 pounds, valued at 

The Guild has 30,000 members. Any information in 
tegard to Ginger, Snake-Gourd, Cayenne Pepper and 
Peanuts, please address to 


Hamamatsu Shizuoka-Ken 

137 Digitized by GoOglc 

Shizuoka Lacquerware Guild 

The manufacture of lacquerware in Shizuoka 
began about 270 years ago. Since that time 
great improvement has been made with years' 
experience so that it now forms one of the most 
prosperous industries of Japan. About 1860 
lacquerware was exported to America for the 
first time. Unfortunately there followed num- 
erous poor counterfeits and imitations from other 
countries which served to injure the market for 
the genuine article and the exportation to America 
was suspended for a time. The goods became 
popular in European markets, however, and now 
enjoy a high reputation and are abundantly 

The chief characteristics of Shizuoka lacquer- 
ware are its stability of structure and coating and 
the novelty and quaintness of its designs, which 
are unsurpassed in their artistic elegance. 

The manufacture of lacquerware involves 
very complicated processes, first of all, the 
ground work is made of a suitable wood, well 
dried. The wood is hut through several kinds 
of treatment before being varnished . The varnish 
is applied and dried by special methods, the same 

138 Digit zed by Google 

process being repeated as often as thirty times. 
Finally the surface is polished in a most scrupu- 
lous manner in order to give it lustre. This 
completed, various designs in gold and silver are 
painted on the ware which is then called ' ' Makiye' ' 
Shizuoka lacquerware is celebrated for the 
. elegance of its designs. The lacquer used for 
varnishing is the juice extracted from the lacquer 

The Shizuoka lacquer guild has under 
its auspices an institution called the Shizuoka 
Lacquerware Industry School. The course 
of the school is divided into two departments, 
the Scientific and Practical. The lacquer- 
ware in Shizuoka is made by. graduates of this 
school and workmen who have had many years' 

The chief articles are trays, wall plates, 
screens, what-nots, chairs, stands, etc. The 
lacquerware exported during 1903 amounted in 
value to $450,000. 

Any further information regarding lacquers may 
be had by addressing the 

Shizuoka Lacquerware Guild 



jgg DgitzedbiiCjOOgle 

The Shizuoka Shouu Guild 

Shoyu is the character! stie Japanese sauce; made of soja bean, wheat 
and salt. It drives delicious taste to meat, fish, shell-fish, ve^retables, etc., 
and is an indispensable article for Japanese cookin^rand for table use. 

At the last World's Exposition in Paris, our Shoyu was rewarded witl^ 
an honorary medal, and it has grreat demand now in Europe as a better 
substitute for sauce. As Fujiyama is the most distinsruished mountain in 
Japan, the manufacturers of the SKoyu Guild in Shizuoka Prefecture, where 
Fujiyama is, stands as the most superior of this kind in Japan. 

Price, 25 cents for one-tenth of a irallon. See our exhibits at the Agrri- 
culture Buildinsr. The exhibits are made by the co-operation of the f ollow- 
insT manufacturers: 


Chamachi, Shidzuoka, Japan. 

The firm, established in 1816, annually produces 250.000 srallons, have 
won several gold and silver medals at the Inter-national and National Ex- 

Hagraracho, Shidzuoka, Japan. 

An establishment of seventy-seven years, with an annual output of 
300,000 srallons, exported larsrely to the United States and Hawaii Islands; 
awarded srold and silver medals in several expositions. 


Hamamatsu Machi, Shidzuoka, Japan. 

Sho3ai brewer for twenty (renerations. His products are hiffhly 
esteemed as the best Shoyu at Vladivostock, Hawaii. Vancouver, and other 
foreifirn countries where large quantities are yearly exported. 


Toyodamura, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

This firm was established in 1866. Years of experience has won a great 
reputation and customers for the product of this brewery. 


Nakaidzumicho, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

The Shoyu of Kameya & Ci). is brewed by a patented process, which is 
surpassed by none of its kind. The company's export is yearly increasink. 

140 Digitized by Google 


Shidzuoka City, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

An establishment of eisrhty-seven years, covering three venerations of 
the family. A process has been invented after years of hard experiments 
for its brewery, brinfiring hifirh reputation of excellent quality and taste to 
its product. 


Mitsuke Machi, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

Shoyu brewer for thirty-two years, and his product has been awarded 
with ffold and silver medals on several occasions, and havinsr innumerable, 
customers, annually produces 100,000 gallons of Shoyu. 


Shidzuoka City, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

This brewery, being established in 1884, produces Shoyu of best quality 
steadily increasing its annual outputs. 


Mihogrun, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

The firm established 250 years ago, using the best materials for its 
Shoyu brewing. Very beat Shoyu is produced and exported to the United 
States in large quantities. 


Shidzuoka City, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

A Shoyu which is cheapest in price and best in quality and taste is 
made by this establishment, winning high reputation in Japan as well as 


Hailaragrun, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

An establishment of years, employing an improved method of Shoyu- 
.... . ■ Q. The 

making after years of experience. The Shoyu consumers are promptly 
supplied on order with fine Shoyu. It ' 
National Industrial Exposition of 1899. 

supplied on order with fine Shoyu. It has won the first-class medal at the 
loi * ' * * ' 


Haibaragun, Shidzuokaken, Japan. 

The firm was established in 1809. The special superiority of its Shoyu 
is its excellence in quality and taste. Unlike others, it can be preserved 
for years. It not only furnishes Shoyu to the gener&lpublic, it also supplies 
to Japanese army as well as navy, and export to England and America. 
Medals have been awarded at expositions at home and abroad, t 

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Shizuoka Paper Manufacturers' and 
Traders' Association. 

The industry of paper manufacture in Shizuoka was 
very early in its origin, and it was noted for centuries for 
its excellent quality. The material of which paper is made 
is obtained from the plant known by the name of ** Mitsu- 
mata" (Edgeworthia Papyiifera). Among several classes 
of paper produced here, the paper called **Tesukigami" 
(hand-made-paper) is finest in quality. By the skill of the 
operatives any characters or pictorial designs can be made 
visible through the component fibre of paper in this **Tesu- 
kigami." It can also be obtained of any thickness or any 
colors required. Not only is it a beautiful and glossy 
paper, but it is very strong, even when wet with water. It 
is very desirable paper for paper currency, bank notes, 
and any other documents that require to be made durable 
and elegant. It is just as good as sheepskin parchment. 
On this account the Grand Prize was given to the Shizuoka 
Paper at the World's Fair at Paris, 1900, and the Silver 
Medal at the National Exhibition at Osaka, 1903. Shizuoka 
hand-made paper has been, during recent years, exported . 
in considerable quantities. The total production of paper 
in 1903 was estimated at over $450,000. 

The Shizuoka Paper Manufacturers' and Traders' 
Association has a membership of 14,500; the total product 
of paper of Western style in 1903 was over $1,400,000. 

Any Information regarding the paper can be obtained 
from Mr. G. Ota, in the Varied Industries Building, 


The Shizuoka Paper Manufacturers' and Traders' 



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Hand-Made Tissue Paper 

The Hand-Made Tissue Paper is manufactured of the material 
called Mitsumata. This kind of paper can only be made in 

The Hand-Made Tissue Paper is very strong and durable, and 
fit for valuable documents and books. It is quite safe from 
worms, or effect of the climate. 

The Hand-Made Tissue Paper can be made with water marks 
of any letters or pictures on account of which it is much 
recommendable for bank-notes, bills, permits, etc. 

The Hand-Made Tissue Paper can be made to any size and 
thickness to meet with consumers* desire. 

The Hand-Made Tissue Paper has been sent to several Bzhib- 
itions and awarded medals and diplomas; among which a 
diploma of the first class at the Fourth National Industrial 
Exhibition ) and the award of a Grand Honour at the Inter- 
national Exhibition in Paris, and an Honorary Silver Medal 
at the National Exhibition, Osaka, 1903 may be specially 



Ota Papbr Factory. 

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143 ^ 


Proprietor En-iohiro Nakamura. 

Yoshidamura, Haibara-Kun, about five miles from Pujiyeda Station. 

BRANCH STORES { f^^^^Ai^t^ru^'""''"'^'^^- 

The threat staple of Shidziioka pteferdure is screen tca^ in the pradiiBCtioti Of 
which the di^Lricl oi Haibara £>taadi> fir^t in reputattdu, in foretErn markets 
lu this dii^trict, N ilka 111 ura Sfichu. SboterQ ba,s the best c ulliv seed tea-planta- 
tions, aad aUo an eiperi^^Mcc in mHniifaciunaji which eKlenda over several 
decadtK. As the proprietor has adopted machinery of the latest type he ia 
able to tnnnutactute tea with promptness and cleEmliness, Thus the te^ 
prepared for sale al Ihisi eslablUhmt^nt is unrivaled in flavor and in color 
when infused. The public who want to set the best tea are cordial! j^ re- 
queated for their patronage. 

Nakamura Tta .'^l jiiai.mL'jry, 

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Gifu Province— Its Location and Its Products. 

GIFU Province is situated in the western part of Honshyu, 
or the main Japanese Island, and is one of the most re- 
sourceful section^ of the Empire. The province produces a great 
many varieties of the articles which constitute Japan's exports. 

The City of Gifu, the capital of the province, is famous on 
account of the fishing done in the Nagara River, which runs 
along the northern part of the city. It is 236 miles from Yoko- 
hama and 113 miles from the Kobe Port. On the Nagara River 
numerous fishing boats may be seen almost every night, carrying 
flaring torches to light their path. A curious method is em- 
played in the fishing; the fishermen use trained comorants for 
catching the trout. These fishing boats furnish the most curious 
sight to be seen in that locality. 

One of the most famous cataracts in Japan is located in Gifu 
Province. It is called Yoro Fall, and is about seven and one- 
half miles from Ogaki Station, on the Tokkaido Line. The fall 
has a drop of more than one hundred feet. The entire region 
about Ogaki Mounfain and falls is exceedingly beautiful, and is 
frequented by both Japanese and foreign tourists. The fall is 
eight miles from the City of Gifu. 


Every facility is provided for the manufacture of the pro- 
ducts given in the following pages, in order that the field of 
demand may be extended to the utmost: 

Products. — The Japanese paper and copy and stationary paper, 
which constitute one of the leading exports of Japan, and its 
annual product in Jap'an reaches to more than $5,500,000 in value, 
is largely produced in Gifu Province. Of these articles stationery 
is a specialty of the province, being there manufactured almost 

* 145 Digitized by Google 

Articles Manufactured of Paper. 

Paper napkins, window decoration paper, paper for advertis- 
ing prints, etc., are extensively and skilfully manufactured in 
Gifu. A large amount of these goods is exported to European 
and American countries, and the trade in them is increasing 
every year. 

Porcelain and Potteries. — Porcelain and pottery, which also 
constitutes one of the greatest exports of Japan, are manufactured 
in Gifu. These wares are celebrated for their beautiful workman- 
ship, the beauty of their finish and cheapness of price. Great 
manufactories of porcelain pottery are located in Tajima-machi, a 
town situated 22 miles from Nagoya, 141 miles from the Kobe 
Port, and 164 miles from Yokohama. 

Crepe and Other Silks. — Crepe is produced in Japan in three 
provinces, Gifu, Kiyoto and Shiga. But the best and cheapest 
crepe is produced in the Gifu Prefecture. A peculiar art which 
cannot be reproduced anywhere outside of Gifu is that of working 
designs in the woven crepe. The export of crepe from Japan 
amounts annually to $3,500,000. The woven silk exported from 
Gifu amounts annually to not less than $3,000,000. 

Silk Goods. — Crepe shawls and silk handkerchiefs, ornamented 
with most skilfully worked and beautiful embroidery of the latest 
designs, are manufactured in Gifu and are exported in large 
quantities. Trade in these articles is increasing every year. 

Raw Silk. — In the production of raw silk Gifii Prefecture 
ranks third among the provinces of Japan. Nearly the entire 
product is exported to European and American countries. 

Lacquered Wares. — The lacquered goods of Gifu have the 
appearance of yellow-grained wood, and in strength and beauty 
surpass any other lacquered wares. They are made both for 
artistic effect and for usefulness, and are ornamented with 
unique and original designs. 

Wood afid Bamboo Goods. — The first grade wooden goods 
are manufactured from Araragi. The grain of this wood is ex- 
ceedingly fine, which makes it valuable for the manufacture of 
utensils," as well as toys, which are in great demand. Bamboo 
screens, made in the most artistic manner and especially fitted 
for furnishing summer houses, are made in Gifu. They are now 

146 * D git zed by Google . 






147 Digitized by GoOglC 

being exported in gresit numbers. Satchels and traveling bags, 
made from willow which are unsurpassed in lightness and 
strength, are made in Gifu. These satchels and bags are ex- 
ported in great quantities, the output amounting annually to about 
1,000,000 yen. The export is increasing every year. 

Marble. — Fuwa-Gun, located two and one-half miles from the 
Ogaki Station, consists of a mountain chain composed almost 
entirely of marble, which furnishes excellent material for building 


and other purposes. Marble work, both of art an4 for decoration, 
is extensively exported from Gifu Province. 

Lanterns, Fire Screens, Parasols, Fans, Etc. — Gifu lanterns, 
paper lamp globes, fire screens, parasols and fans are manu- 
factured in the province in the latest designs, having great merit. 
These are both for decorative and useful purposes, and are ex- 
ceedingly popular both in Japan and abroad. Gifu Prefecture 
is the place which produced these articles originally, and the 


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art and skill required for their making cannot be attained else- 
where by others* Their export has made rapid progress, until at 
present it amounts annually to $2,500,000. 

Japanese Swords. — ^The workmanship of the swords of Gifu 
is not excelled anywhere in the world. The manufacture of the 
swords in Japan is at present almost exclusively confined to 
Gifu Prefecture, where the art has been practiced from time 
immemorial.. The sword-makers still retain their skill of the 
ancient times, which skill is now applied to the making of razors, 
knives and other sharp-edged instruments. The export of this 
kind of wares consumes more than one-half of the total output, 
which amounts to 2,000,000 yen annually. 

Mustard-seed Oil. — Mustard-seed oil is extracted from mus- 
tard-seed and constitutes an indispensable article in machine 
shops, railway cars, factories and ships, where it is used as a 
lubricant. The annual output amounts to 5,000,000 yen from the 
Gifu Prefecture alone, and it is chiefly produced by the Okuda 
oil manufactories of Ogaki. 

Persimmons, — Persimmon is a peculiar product of Japan. It 
has an agreeable, sweet taste, and Gifu Prefecture is noted for 
the production of excellent persimmons, which are used ex- 
tensively for making cakes. Confections made from this fruit 
have an excellent flavor. Persimmon is also used for the making 
of "Kaki Yokan,"' a kind of Japanese cake, which is liked by 
the Europeans and Americans. 

School of Entomology.— Tht^ Nawa Entomological Research 
Laboratory was established by Dr. Yasushi Nawa in the City of 
Gifu. Dr. Nawa, who is a famous entomologist of Japan, is 
directing the laboratory personally. Both foreigners and natives 
study in thie institute. The students number upwards of 1,500 

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President, Sukeemon Takei 



The Third Oass Merit Shohai, 

At the Second NaUonal 
. Industrial Ezhibitiont 

The Second Class Merit 

At the Third National 
Industrial Exhibition, 

Two G>pper Medals on Merit, 

At the Universal Exposi- 
tion, Chicago^ 1903. 

The First Cass Progressive 

At the Fourth National 
Exhibition, 1899. 

The riokuju-shoho, special 
medal on merit, from the 
Einperor of Japan, which is 
reproduced here* 

At the International Ex- 
hibition» in Paris, 1900, the 
following medals and honors 
were awarded: 

A Special Grand Honor 
on Merit. 

Two aiver Medals. 

A Gold Medal. 

At the Fifth National In- 
dustrial ExhiUtion, 1903, was 
awarded a silver medal* 

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Manufacturers of 


47 Komeyacho, Qifu, Japan. 


A Gold Medal, the Paris Universal Exposition, 1900. 
A Gold Medal, the Hanoi Exposition. 1893, 

The First-Class Prize Medal, the Third National Industrial Exhibition. 

The First-Class Prize Medal, the Fourth National Industrial Exhibition. 

The First-Class Prize Medal, the Fifth National Industrial Exhibition. 

And more than fifty other awards. 

The Company manufactures Art Lanterns, Paper Lamp Globes, Folding: 
Paper Lamp Shades, Parasols, Tent Umbrellas, Fire Screens, Gifu Paper 
Serviettes. Window Decoration Papers, Fans, D'Oyleys, etc. 

All these articles, exceptinsr lanterns and fans, are manufactured exclu- 
sively for foreigrn markets. This Kaisha has been the first that exported the 
kind of article to foreign countries in the Gifu prefecture. The manufactory 
was established in 1879 and its work was sfradually extended till it became to 
be organized into a company and adopted the name of a Kaisha (company.) 
This was done chiefly through the efforts of Mr. Naojiro Teshikawara, who is 
the present business manaf^er. ^ j 

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151 ^ 


Takayama, Hida Gun, Gifu Ken. 

Manufacturer of Shinkei Lacquer Wares and Ichii Tree 


ShinKei Lacc|uer Work, is a special product of Hida province, 
Gifu Prefecture. It is an art transmitted from ancient time. This 
lacquer ware has both strength and beauty, for which it is popularly 
admired and demanded. The work includes caskets, trays of every 
variety, receptacle of stationary utensils, jewel boxes, and many 
other articles indispensable for housekeeping. The work has been 
exhibited at many universal and national exhibitions and received 
medals and honors. ' . ' 

Ichii Tree Work, to which is applied the highest skill of the 
art of engraving, is another special production of the Hida province. 
The tree has beautiful wood grain, which is skillfully shown on the 
work, including small caskets, photograph mounting frames and 
objects that adorn homes. The work has extensive field of demand. 

6ifu-§hi Kinu Orimono Kabusiki Kaisha, 

(Gifu City Silk Weaving Company, Limited) 

fianafactarers of f igared SilK Crape 

The Exclusive Dealer in the Article. 

Fierured silk crape is an article manufactured only in this city in Japan. 
No other article is better fit than the figured silk crape for woman's appar- 
els and clothinifs, window shades and for other decorative purposes, in all 
seasons of the year. It is light and strong, and wears longer than any other 
similar fabric. Washing gives no wrinkle or shrinkage, nor is the color or 
figure affected by it. 

This company manufactures exclusively the silk crape and is the oldest 
establishment of the kind. It employs a large number of the most highly 
skilled artisans, whose aims are to follow the latest fashions and the 
newest designs. C^n^r^aio 

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152 "^ 


Namazumura, Motosugun, Gifu Prefedlure. 

— ^MANUFACTURER 0F=--- -- 

Willow Basket and Bag, or Yanagi Goori. 

The material selected for the basket is obtained by 
skinning small willow trees, which are found growing 
only in Japan, and the skinned trees are then woven 
into baskets and bags of all sizes. 

The baskets thus made are well fit for travelling use. 
The peculiarities of the basket are strength, flexibility, 
durability in water in which it never sinks, and the 
cheapness of the price. 

The manufactory has been established fifteen years 
ago, and the skill of the artisans is excellent. Five 
hundred persons are employed in the factory and the 
work is extensively done. ^ . 

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153 , ^ 


(Suda Company) 

Kamiyuchi machi, Bugigun, Itcho-me, Moto-machi, Kobe. 

Gifu Ken. 

Manufacturers of Stationery, Papers, 
and Paper Napkins. 

Dra^ving Paper is made from Japanese paper, which has peculiar 
qualities not possessed by other papers. The peculiarities are strength, smoothness 
of surface, impenetrabili^ of ink, flexibility, lightness, etc. This paper is well adapted 
for drawing, architectunU and mechanical designs. 

Copying Paper has strength and elasticity, and smooth, glossy surface, 
and is best fit for copying purposes and for making note books. 

Paper NapKins are made from soft yet strong Japanese paper, as thin as 
insect's wings. They are decorated with pictures of birds, flowers, etc,, after the latest 
and most beautiful designs. The napkin may be used for wrapping jewels and 
precious household goods to protect them from scratches. 

These three kinds of our goods are exhibited at the Mauiufactures Building, World's 
Fair, at St. Louis. 

Kyuhachi Sato Shokai 

Sekimachi, Gifu Prefecture, 


Sword Blades, Razor, Knife, Shikomi-Zui, (Combination 
Sword Cane) , Sickle, Saw, and other sharp- 
edged implements. 

The making of the Japanese sword involves the art that has 
been kept secret since time immemorial. This secret art is applied 
to all sharp-edged implements of our make. Hence we have no 
rival in the field. Several hundred men are employed for the 
making, and the factory is able to meet with almost unlimited 
demands. This company is supplying the largest field of demand 
of all the sword makers in the Prefecture, owing chiefly to the 
fact that it is the oldest establishment with the highest reputation. 

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Commission Merchant in 
Lacquer Ware 

23, Yumicho, Kyobashi-Ku 
Tokyo, - - - -- - -- - Japan. 

The Lacquer Ware Company is established under the 
patronage of the Japan Lacquer Ware Industry Asso- 
ciation, We handle only artistic Lacquer Ware of highest 
quality of genuine Japanese Characteristics* We have 
been honored with frequent orders from His Imperial 
Majesty's Household « 


Porcelain Mfg. Co., 

Tajimi Machi, Gifu, Japan. 

The porcelains manufactured by us are sold by the 
Tajima & Co., Boston, Chicago, Yokohama, Kobe, 
Nagoya, Japan, etc., being well known under the name 
of Nishiura Yaki. Goods of ideal designs and quality 
are found among our products. We shall be pleased to 
have our goods examined at the Varied Industries Build- 
ing, World's Fair Grounds; And shall be able to meet 
orders for any quantity and quality without delay. 

]_55 Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


The Pofcelain manuiactyred by tst it known as Minoyaki* 
High quality and low price is our motto* We are able to 
meet oraers for any desigiand amount. We export to Europet 
Americat Korea* and China* We have been awarded with 
gold medal at the Hanoi Exposition of I903» and a silver 
medal at Paris, 1900* 

Sukusaburo Kato, Morse & Co. 



(Rape-seed Oil Reined) 


An excellent lubricator for Machinery. 

Also useful for food and lighting purposes. 





Nibe or fish glue is a new product in Japan, and has 
promising future in Japan. The output in 1902 was 
about 34,700 lbs. of which about 10,000 lbs. was exported 
to China, Europe and America. I am the only fish glue 

manufacturer in Japan. Sample and price ii»t win be 

furnished on application. 

362 Higashi Hirano Machi, 


^_. DgitzedbiiCjOOgle 


Dealer in Japanese and Chinese 

Art Objects 



BRANCH HOUSE, Tcromachi Oifcc, Kioto. 

LONDON HOUSE, 68 New Bond Street, London, Ene. 


254 Fifth Avenue, - - New York* 

272 Boylston Street, - - - Boston, Mass. 

BoordWalk, - - Atlontic City, N. J. 

157 Digitized by Google 


Our insect powder kills all insects without injuring 
the plants. This insect powder is made from chrysan- 
themum flowers and is considered the best of its kind. 
It is also very effective as applied to bed-bug and other 
insects. Orders should be sent before October. Our an - 
nual output is 200,000 to 250,000 lbs. 

Prick: 1 lb. 25 cents; 100 lbs. $24: 1000 lbs. $225. 




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Established m]!) jM, Hi *'"''•* Wanuf acturers 

1881. -^f/MS^i^^M. ^ly *" Japan. 

Insect Powder 


Shimitsu Keirindo & Co. 


Osaka, Japan. 


Shii-take is a specie of Mushrooms, which is produced 
abundantly in the vicinity of Osaka. Annual produce 
of Shii-take in this district is about 3,000,000 pounds, 
half of which goes to China and a part to America. 
Shii-take may be cooked in the same way as other 
Mushrooms. Shii-take is one of the best food in its 
nourishment and taste. 

We desire to open trade with western peoples. 


Itchome, Tenjinbashisuji, OSAKA, JAPAN. 

159 Digitized by Google 




The Company was established in September, 1892. 

The Company manufacture Sulphuric Acid and 
•Alkali, as well as Superphosphate and other 

The Company's works, situated on five and one-half 
acres of ground facing a river, and ra,ilway at the 
back, comprising Acid chambers, with Glover, 
Gay Lursuc, and Lunge Towers, Muriatic Acid 
Towers, Sulphate and Soda' Furnaces, Caustic 
Soda Pots, Bleaching Powder and Liquor Plants and 
complete Plant for Superphosphate and other 
mixed fertilizers. The capital required for the 
above, $486,ooo, and for working, $200,000. 

The Company's present output of Superphosphate 
is 50,000 tons a year, and on the completion of 
the alteration 60,000 tons per annum. 

The Company's Superphosphate sell, not only at 
home but are exported to Australia, New Zealand 
and west coast of U. S. A. This year's exports 
to the former states being 10.000 tons, and to the 
latter 600 tons, and they are under contract for 
the next year of 1 2,000 tons. 

The Company is prepared to export 20,000 tons a 

160 D git zed by Google 


Trade Mark. 

^ Eitto SiM Brewer l. Toyoia, Sakal, Osala, JapaL ' 

Trade Mark. 

-^"^^^ Taialawa-rolni: Brewer B. Waiaye, Osata, JaDan. 

Trade Mark. 

1^ IMi Mr. Brewer H. Kawaion, SaM, Osalca, lapai. 

Trade Mark. 

^^ Mitss nroko: Bitwer S. TaigasMia,' lalilMa. Idzmi, lapai. 

Trade Mark. 

^b DreU: Brewer L UyeU, Osaka. Japan. 

Trade Mark. 

J^^ Yiuna Js: Brewer H. Taiaioto, Osah, Tapan. 

Trade Mark. . 

@ Mamlclil Jo: Brewer S. Masila, Osaka, Japa 

Trade Mark. j 

•<^> Ham Hatss: Brewer T. Hotsutanl, Osaka, Japan. 

Trade Mark. 

^n^ Hon Iclii: Brewer I. Yeliara, Osala, Japan. 

Trade Mark. 

^ Sin; Brever L SMnio, Osata, Japan. 

The Virtue off the Sauce and Direction ffor Use. 

* The Japanese Soy with the Trade Marks is brewed from the very best Japanese 

bean, wheat and salt. The Soy is of dark brown coloi^' and id specially adapted for 
everr kind of boiled, baked and fried fish: for chops, ;steak8 and cutlets and cold 
meats; also for the cooking of vegetables. The article possesses a particular taste and 
flavor and advances the digestion. ^ . , , ^ ^ , 

The Japanese Soy with these Trade Marks may be stored for a long period and is 
gnaranteeu never to turn bad. 

The article is sold for 6 to 9.60 yen per case of 4 jro bottles, F. O. B. Osaka. An 
ordertoany of the Brewers will receive prompt tttlenlion. ^ j 

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161 "^ 

Pure Cod Liver Oil 


Manufactured by 


Pure Cod Liver Oil 

Manufactured by 


Three Manufactories in Hakkaido 

Pure Cod Liver Oil 


Trade Mark. 

Dealer in 




^^„ Digitized by CjOOQIC 




AWA-OKOSHI is prepared front specially selected Mochi-Gome 
(Glutinous Rice), Goma (Sesamum Orientalis), Ame ( a kind 
of liquid Honey), and Fine White Suffar. It is the most 
favorite Sweetmeat in Japan. 

This preparation is very delicious to the taste and nourishing- 
to the body. Its merits have been admitted and recog-nized, as 
is shown by the many prizes awarded at various Exhibitions. 

Beware of Imitations! None genuine without the Firm's 
trade- mark. 



(Established 1756). (DAIKOKU). 

Amidaike, Nishi-ku, 




The Japanese Artistic Wood Work is known through 
our store. Many encouragements have been given to us 
by our government, and we are pioneer of the exporters 
of Japanese furniture to foreign countries. We have 
five factories with three hundred first-class workmen of 
good experience. Our furniture is made with selected 
Japanese wood and our price is reasonable. We invite 
all to examine our exhibition in the Varied Industries 


Shichome, Minamihoncho, 

Shigashiku, OSAKA, JAPAN. 

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Painter of the 



No. 197 Naka Ni-chome Dojima. 



by Google 



K^ TRADE ^BO^V mark \jb 


Are much Stronger than the Wooden and most' suitable for 
^ Artistic Furniture. 

Gold Medal, Paris, 1900. 


03AKA, ^APAN. 


The Unshyu Orange of Itsumikita Gun, Osaka Fu, is sweet, 
juicy aud has no seed. Price is moderate, and is well known as 
the best of oranges. Our annusil output is 218,660 cases, valued 
at 2,623,920 yen. The best season for exporting the orange to 
America and Europe is from November to March. Price is 60 
cents per case, containing 60 oranges. Sixty -five cents will be 
added for transportation, insurance, packing, and some duties if 
imported to America. Principal exporters belonging to our 
association are: 

Amabari Farm, Yokoyamamura, Itsumikita Gun, Osaka Fu. 
OrinosukeNozake, Minamikitamura, Itsumikita Gun, Osaka Fu. 
JuBEi Akasaka, Yamatakimura, Itsumikita Gun, Osaka Fu. 

This Association will, with much pleasure, be match-maker 
for foreigner and the producer. 

Agriculturers" Association of Itsumikita Gun, 


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Fans of All Descriptions 

Tominokoji Gojio Kita, 


Brewed by Ueki, Osaka, Japan. 

Best in Quality, 
Best in Flavor, 

May be used just as well as 

best American table 



Fine Work Ninsho Uno 

47 Gojodon Ohashi 

HIgasKi Gochome, Kyoto, Japan. 

166 Dgitzed by Google 

«;-- . 

rcOp MEDAL, PARIS," ■■■(900 

iCRAMD-pRIX, HANOI ■'■(902 



if T6\re^ 





[worlp3fair, ST. loms^So*^' 

-- -^ -.-- ~ 

lg7 DgitzedbiiCjOOgle 

Qreen Ribbon Merit Medal Awarded by Imperial Qovemment 
as First Exporters off Japanese Embroidery. 

Awarded Medals: 

First Class, at Philadelphia 1876 

Gold, at Paris 1878 

Gold, at Amsterdam 1883 

First Class, at Barcelona 1888 

First Class, at Paris 1889 

Silver, at Chicaj^o 1893 

Gold, at Paris 1900 

And many others at National Exhibitions. 



Cut Velvet Pictures, 


Korosumaru Hichijio* Kyoto^ Jopan* 

R. Tanaka, the largest and oldest house in Kyoto, was estab- 
lished more than five hundred years ago. 

It occupies a fair building at Shichijio Karasumaru, the best 
quarter of the city, and is noted for its embroideries, which 
it largely exports. 

It has been patronized by the Imperial Household and hon- 
ored by H. I. M. the Empress of Japan and H. I. H. the King 
of Italy. 

168 Digitized by Google 






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Shoami Doki, my ancester of nine generations back 
was a decorator of sword sheaths in Kiyoto, by trade. 
His decorative works of gold were of highest quality. 
His artistic productions became famous, and he was 
employed by Lord Ikeda, governor of Okayama province, 
in patronage of whose family the descendants of Shoami 
Doki remained. I followed the time -honored industry 
of my ancestors until 1871, when the carrying of swords 
were prohibited by law of the land. I immediately took 
up artistic metal work, and since then have been fortu- 
nate enough to earn a good reputation in home and 
abroad, having found markets for my works in England 
and other foreign countries during last seventeen years. 

Following medals have been awarded to my works : 

Holo Merbourtf n 188 I 

First Gold Medal New Orleans. . . . 1884 

Second Sliver Medal Germany 1885 

SecondSllver Medal.... Paris 1889 

Copper Medal , Chicago 1893 

SecondSllver Medal.... Paris 1900 

Beside these medals won abroad, many have been re- 
ceived in the home exhibition. During twelve exhibi- 
tions since 1878, my productions have been rewarded with 

Two First Class Gold Medals 
Six Second Class Silver Medals 
Twelve Third Class Copper Medals, and 
Four Holo. 

What is far superior delight to me than those medals 
is that my workmanship has received the gracious notice 
of His Majesty the Emperor and has been placed to 
grace the Imperial Household. 

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I have been able to place three vases at the exhibition 
in the present World's Fair in St. Louis. One of them 
is decorated with a view of the Higashi Mountain, while 
another with a winter crysanthemum, and the last with 
Shoki, the hero of China. As it is represented in those 
pieces, my specialty consists of engraved and inlaid 
works of gold and silver. Your attention is respectfully 
invited to examine the workmanship. 

Tomlkaji, Takeyamachi, Kyoto, Japan. 

Handbook of Japan 

A year book of Japan, its 
industry, commerce and finance. 




15 Minaminabecho. 203 Broadway, 

ichome. Kyobashiku, New York, 

Tokyo, Japan. U. S. A. 

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H. I. J. M/s 

by Special Appointment. 


Manufacturer of 

High-Class Embroideries Fancy Cut Velvett and 

Silk Goods in GeneraL 

Sanjo Karasumaru^ 

(Established in 1604.) 

S. IKEDA & CO., 







S. IKEDA & Co., 13, Owaricho Nichome, near the "Imperial Hotel,** 


172 Digitized by Google 



General Japoncse Goods* 

\^x^\^^ gc CO, 38 Mukouyanagibora 

^- '^. X ^^ ^^^N^ Itchom^t 


VXV-^ &CO., 

Varied Industries Building 

tiX^-\ AND 


^gALyu TrrrMli illllll iTTfrfTmii 



Mitsui Mining 





17A Digitized b»Cj009l6 


Model of the Surface Plants at Manda Pit (Miike Colliery) 
Specimens of Coal, Coke and Sulphur; also Model of 
Miyabara's Patent Water Tube Boiler, Kishi*s 
Patent Direct-Current Generator, Gen- 
erator Field Coil, and lijima 
System Extra High-Ten- 
slon Testing Trans- 

Sole Agents for Sale of the Company's Mineral Products: 

(or MITSUI BUSSAN KAISHA, as the firm is known by this the Orient.) 

I Suruga-cho, Nihombashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan. 


NEW YORK— 445-7 Broome Streets, 


California Safe Deposit Building, 228 Montgomery Street. 

(Branches are also established in London, Hamburj^, Sydney, Bombay. Hongkong^ 
and other important Far Eastern ports.) 


— . — - — 












» TKt LAST SIV t EARr, .« to«% 





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Emort to America, EDnlaiil. Kemany, France anl Bnssia 

Silver Medal Awarded, Chicago, 1893. 
Silver Medal Awarded, Paris, - 1900. 


2 Yazaimoncho, 
Kyobash ku. 




I B. B. B. 

The picture shown here is that of our 
exhibit in the Varied Industries Build- 
ing, and it is one of the larsrest bronze 
works. We exhibited also fountain 
decorated with dragon and Mura Osuka 
and Ota Dakuan on horseback; large 
vase with three feet and several bronze 
works of birds and animals. Those 
bronze works are made by the wax 
model, which is used only one time, 
and which process is a specialty of 
Japan. Bronze works by such process 
is able to show every detail of minute 
art. None is unsurpassed in its arts. 


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(AIBA & CO.) 

Cable addrgss? 


A B Q A 1 Code, Western Union. 


Mantif actfirer of and Dealer in 



Xatriourat, Sattsum^, Jatpatn 

The famous Satsuma por- 
celain is manufactured by 
Keida & Co. , which being its 
very originator. We manu- 
facture the real Satsuma of 
exceedingly fine qualities and 
designs. Colors that can 
never be imitated by any other 
manufacturer. You never 
have a Satsuma unless you have our mark on it. Med - 
als of highest class and honor have been awarded our 
goods at several Expositions. 

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No. 7-8 Torishio chio Nihonbaslii Ku. 
Tokio, ---.__- Japan. 

White Persimmon 

KInc of Fruit In The Erast. 

White persimmon is far better in its taste than any other fruit and 
has good nourishment. It can be preserved for any length of time 
without spoiling its quality and taste. It is exported to China and 
Hawaii and its demand abroad Is steadily increasing. Medals were 
given to white persimmon at several exhibitions. 

r Extra quality, 10 cents per piece. 

Prices ^ First class 5 cents per piece. 

{ Ordinary ^ 2H cents per piece. 

Yamanashi Fruit Trader's Association, 

Natsosatomtira, Uigashi, Yamanashi Gon. 
Yamanashi Ken, Japan. 




Porcelain^ China- Ware Manufactory, 
Decolation a Specialty 

1631 Minami Ota Machi, 

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1 Moto Sukiyacho. Kyobashiku, TOKYO, JAPAN. 






ABALONE SHELL (Haliotida^), 

MUSSEL {Mytilidce), Etc., Etc. 




The Pearls are exhibited in the Department of Fish and 
Game, and also in the Department of Varied industries, 

of the Exposition. 

For further information, apply to 


Japanese Section in the Varied Industries Building, and in the 

d by Google 

Fishery Building. 



Porcelain Storc^ 

No* 40^ Nichome Bcnien-6ori, Yokohama* 

Naiumagaii-Quv Nagoya* - - - Shlchomet Kano- Guv Kobe. 

Patented Hinomoto-Yaid and Ishime- Yaki Porcelalng. 

PORCELAINS from Nagoya, Mino, Aizu, Banfco, 

Tokonobe, Soma and other Porcelain Districts* 
An visitors will receive a cordial welcome* Orders for Porcelain 

promptly executed* Goods packed and shipped to all ports of the 

world and delivery s^tsaranteed* 



OTA SHOYU BREWING COMPANY was established in 1850. The 
shoyu brewed by this company is known as the best of the kind in its 
flavor and quality, and is known by the name of "Fuji Shoyu." Second Medal 
in 1859 and the first Silver Medal in 1903, have been given to "Fuji Shoyu.** 
We brew in large quantity and export to Germany, America, Hawaii, Corea, 
Shanghai, Hong Kong, England, Canada, Australia, India, Singapore, etc. 
through G. BRANDQLI^ & CO. No. 41 YamashiU Cho, Yokohama. 
**FUJI SHOYU" is low in price and high in quality. 

912 Minamiota Machi, YOKOHAMA, JAPAN. 

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No.27,Benteii-donYokobama j 

















Branch OfflccTT IM^T J^J^Q No. §1, Benten 



► N935 , 



Cable Address— Ewata Yokohama 
No. 35 Yamashita-Cho, Yokohama, Japan 



HiRAYAMA Fireworks 

Cable Address— Lifeland Yokohama 
No. S3 Yokohama 


Artistic Japanese 


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Established 1880. 

Subscribed Capital Ten 24,000,000.00 

Paid-up Capital " 18,000,000.00 

Reserve Fund " 9,210,000.00 


Naoatane Soma Esq President 

KAMENOSUitB MiSAKi Esq . Vice-President. 

K. SONODA Esq. R. Hara Esq. R. Kimura Esq. 

I. Wakao Esq. Y. Yamakawa Esq, 


Kobe. London. San Francisco. Hongkong. Peking. . 

Tokyo. Lyon. Hawaii. Shanghai. Newdiwang. 

Nagasaki. New York. Bombay. Tientsin. 

Correspondents at all the chief commercial cities in the world. 

, , ^ , fLondon Joint Stock Bank, Limited. 

London Bankers < Parr's Bank. Limited. 

(Union of London and Smith's Bank, Limited. 


Liberal interest allowed on current account and on fixed deposit accounts. 
Every description of Banking business transacted. 

Certified cheques on this Bank will be taken by the Custom House as cash in 
payment of duty. 

H. BEKKEY, Sub-Manager. 

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K. Kobayashi 

Otamachi Itchome, 

Yokohama, Japan 

Manufacturer and Exporter of 


And Other Japanese Products 

^ ^ ^ 


• • • Sd^ ViJ ML J^ • •• 

Silk and embroidered goods, Habutai, shawls, handker- 
chiefs, table cloths, bed spreads, mantel pieces, silk fans, 
d'oyleys, kimonos, smoking jackets, and all commodi- 
ties of special quality. Suya is the principal manufac- 
turer of Habutai in Kaga, where the best silk goods are 
produced. Yokohama branch office will receive and 
furnish your orders promptly and at reasonable prices. 


Kamitsuzumi Machi, Kanazawa, Japan. 



Motohama Sanchome, Yblohama, Japan. 

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No. 6» Bentendorl Itchome, 



' Awarded Fint Medal in Oaaka. 



No. 341, Motomachit 
Itchome, Kobe. 


No. 3, Glnxa, Sanchome Tokyo. 



Finest Cotton Crapes and Silk Sliirts and Neckties; 
also Fancy Shirtings of Newest Designs 

Also French Print and Flannels, Collars, Cuffs, Etc., Etc. 



AM E is a kind of sweet and nutritious confection extracted from Japanese 

rice, millet and wheat without any other substances, 
*-» \j 
AMB purifies t>lood, aids the work of disestive organs and is especially noted 

for its remedial power on stomach, lungr and heart diseases, asthma, etc* 
^ — '-' ^ „ %> 

JIYO AMB is the flavored candy made of ame, suitable for children, asred 

people and invalids, etc., and it can be preserved for years with- 
out the least fear of chansins: its orisrinal taste, thoush it is 
liable to chansre its solidity, according to the climate. 



MoloiuacKi, Yokohama, 


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(Mehthol Cryilal) 

PATENT NO. 6366. 


(Peppermint Oil) 

T. O. KAWASE & CO., 

Representative, R. OKAWA. 

Manufacturer and dealer of refined Menthol Crystal and Pepper- 
mint oil and general importer and exporter. 

No 9 Sumiyoshicho Itchome 




Embroidered. Hand Painted, Printed and Drawn 
Work Silks of every description. 

All kinds of dress silks. Table covers. Handkerchiefs. 

Teaanddressinsrsowns. Pillow shams. Parasols. 

Jackets. Bed quilts. Ties. 

Kimonos. Sashes. Doyleys. 

Pajamas. Shawls. Screens. 

Velvet pictures. Portieres. Curtains. 

Teacosys. Shirts. Chair-scarfs, etc., etc. 

E.xhibited at the Varied Industries Building. 

Orders promptly and accurately executed. 

No. 44, Honcho Sanchome, Yokohama. 

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•^ ^ J^ 





I N — — ^— 





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Wholesaler and Exporter of 
General Japanese Goods. 

Every description of screen, fan, fun round, 
lantern, silk goods, embroidered silk, cards, 
Japan ware, umbreIla,pbotograph,picture, etc. 

Bentendori Itchome, 



The Domyoji rice is a prepared rice food, and is very 
good as used fof breakfast. It can be cooked in a very 
simple way : Just pour boiling water twice or thrice over 
the rice, and add milk and sugar. It can also be used 
in making fine delicacies. The Japanese army use it in 
the field. 

Price is 3 cents per pound and 5 cents for 
flex Domyo]! rice. 



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187 *^ 




Wat AN ABE- Hakka 


SiWer Medal, Osaka, 1903, 

Watanabe's menthol is the king of Japanese menthol. None 
surpass in its quality. WAT AN ABE is oldest and largest men- 
thol manufacturer in Japan; owns three factories. 



Druggist and Apothecary, 



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Two kinds of our Shoyu with above trade mark are 
highly esteemed as the most superior of their kinds. 
They are manufactured from the best materials and by 
the secret process inherited from Izumiyama's ancestor. 
It is a fine table sauce of its kind. 

Izumiyama Shoyu Brewing Co. 




by Google 

Fine Japanese Sake. 


Fukuokaken Sake Brewers* Guild. 

Japouiese Saki is hrcwedf not distiHedf from best rice ond 
pure water by the same process as beer brewinsf. 
The saki of this brand is brewed exclu- 
sively by members of the 


It is renowned as the best in quqiity 
ond taste of the kinds in Japan* Annual pro- 
duce in Fukuokaken is over 25^000^000 sfcdlons» beins: the 

Second Largest Breft^beiy in Japan. 

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The famous **Cow" raw silk- is manufactured by the Soshi- 
okwan, at Nihonmatsu, the centre of raw silk manufacture, in 
Japan. The company is managed by Mr. Osamu Yamada, the 
proprietor, who has had over thirty years experience in silk 

The **Cow** raw silk is made from selected spring cocoons only, 
and strictly does not use summer and autumn cocoons. Annual 
output is only about 25,000 pounds. It has had a good reputation 
for years in the New York market, as the **Cow" raw silk is the 
best in its kind and in honesty in trading. The specialties of 
**Cow*' raw silk are having regular Daniel and strength and less 
joint. The **Cow'* raw silk was awarded several highest 
medals. In the Industrial Exhibition at Osaka, 1903, it was 
awarded the Honorary Silver Medal, accompanied by the follow- 
ing recommendation : 

**For many years they have been manufacturing raw silk, 
and years of experience has made remarkable progress in fila- 
*ture. The raw silk manufactured by this company has gained a 
credit abroad, and the company is a pioneer of raw silk exporta- 
tion to the United States. Herewith we highly esteem the 
merit of the company that has been done in the past.** 

The **Cow" raw silk is exhibited at the Japanese section in 
the Manufactures Building. All silk weavers are invited to 
examine the exhibits. 

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Imaoutchl, Mifuunikanbara NIIGATA-KEN, JAPAN 



Annual Produce, 300,000 yen. 

Annual Export to the U. S., 250,000 yen. 

The Habutai manufactured by the advertiser has abroad good 
reputation on its finest and good quality. The advertiser has two 
factories equipped with the latest machines. Employes over 200. 


Persimmon is a very fine fruit with sugary 
taste and it can be taken both fresh and pre- 
served. It also can be used in making fine 

Persimmon in Nakakoma, Yamanashi Ken, is 
well known as best of its kind« 
Price: Dried Persimmon about $3.00 per 100. 
Youns: Persimmon tree, about $1.00 per 100. 


Agricultures Association, 

Yamahashi Ken. .--- ----- Japan. 

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Maru Sen Shoyu 

Awarded Medak and Shoh^ at the World*s 
Exhibibon, Paris, 1 903, and others. 

Marusen Shoyu is havin 
good flavor and taste, an 
also rich nourishment. It 
is a very good table sauce, 
and can be u^ed as a ma- 
terial to make the Euro- 
pean sauce. Our price is 
moderate; and are exten- 
sively sold in Japan and 
also exp<Mled. 


Kinatomoni, Kitakanbara, 
Niifata Ken, Japan, 


Awa-ame and Okina-ame 


Ante is a most delicious sub- 
stance especially for afternoon tea, 
made from semi-fermented barley. 



Takada, Yechigo, 


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DanlloD to the Bnyeis of Japao mat 

THIS Association is organized according' to the Industrial Guild Resn- 
lation, for ttie benefit of ttie Mattinff Trader. The Association does 
critical examination of every mat manufactured by its members in 
resrard to its materials, colors, designs, size, weight and workmanship, and 
marks eVery mat as follows, according to its qualities: 

Second Class. 

Not Fitted for Market. 

Not Full Length. 

The first and second classes are stamped on both ends of the face of 
mat; that not fitted for market is stamped on both ends of mat, and ten 
places on the back of mat, and it is also stamped ou the spot where it is not 
good for even first class mat. 

The first and second class mats that have not full length of 40 yards, 
the fourth stamp will be put on. Thus we prevent the mattinirs of bad 
quality from going to market. Any buyer will not be deceived, fixamine 
our Exhibit at the manufacturing Building. 

Japan Mat Hanufacture & Traders Ass'n. 


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194 ' ' & 

...YUBARI COjiL... 



(Hokkaido Colliery and Railway Company,) 

Capital: Yen 18,000,000 

Mines: Yubari, Sorachi, Poronai and Ikushunbetsu, 

Railway Operated: 212 Miles, 

Annual Output of Goal: 1,000,000 Tons. 

Exporting Ports : Mororan and Otaru. 


Sapporo, Iwamizawa, M<|roran, Otaru, Hakodate, 
Tokyo and .Yokohama. 

Principal Business Office 

IS Minami lidamachi, Kyobashiku, Tokyo. 

Telegrams. ," Tanko Toky^ '• j 

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195 "^ 

Mumn mi MimuFiicfuiiiiKi co. 



•^ 9^ J^ 


F. O. B. factory $40 00 

SPECIAL MADE, 10,000 feet, F. O. B. factory...$47 50 

SPECIAL FUSE, for land use, 10,000 feet, 

F. O. B. factory , $35 00 

Murakami's fuse was invented twenty-eight years ago, by Mr. S. Murakami, 
and ever since improvement has been done. Murakami's fuse is now in 
use in a hundred prominent mines in Japan. 


Awarded the Sliver Medal at Industrial Exhibition^ 
Osaka, 1903* 


The Civil Officer of **ShinIn Kan*' in the Uniform. 


President of Cutter's Association In Osaka. 

30 Sanchome, Chama chi dori, Osaka, Japan. 

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Kameya Shoyu & Company, 

Nakaidzumi Cho, Shidzuoka Ken, 


Hkfijr t T . 




Jm ' 




Proprietor of Kameya Shoyu & Co. 

The Shoyu of Kameya & Co. is brewed by a patented 
process, which is surpassed by none of its kind. The 
company export to the United States ^ Hawaii, Europe, 
China, Corea. 

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Importer pF Clothing 

Uniform of Oeremonial Officer, Uniform of Ofvil OlBcer, 

"Ghoknnin Kan" of the Iqiperial Household. **Ohokunin Kan.** 

Yamasaki is strictly highclass tailor in Tokyo. Patroned by the Gtovemment 
oflflcer and highclass people. 

198 D git zed by Google 

High Class Wooden Tea Jar 


The Tea Jar as shown here is made by Japanese 
kiri, pawllonia imperialis. 

Kiri is a very light wood and free from dampness. 
It is a very good jar for keeping tea, coffee and such 
stuff. It is not heavy and breakable like jars of glass 
and porcelain. 

The Jar is japanned and then gold lacquered with 
beautiful Japanese pictures. It is not only good for jar 
but it is good as a decoration on the table. The jars 
are exhibited at Japanese section in the Varied Indus- 
tries Building. An order to any amount and any design 
will be promptly executed. 

21. Sakamoto Cho, Nihonbashi Ku. TOKYO, JAPAN. 

199 Digitized by Google 

Silk Embroideries and Decorations, Mantelpieces, 

Table Cloths, Pillow Cases, Bed Covers, Cushion 

Covers, Wall Hangings, Kimonos, Matting, 

Handkerchiefs, Doilies, Etc.. Etc. 


New in Design, Good in Quality, Low in Price, 
Is Our Motto. 

Established for fifteen years^ Orders promptly executed^ 
T<wehfe factories and one thousand ^workmen. 


Wholesaler and Retailer in Silk Goods, 

37 Honcho Shichichomc, YOKOHAMA, 

Sokuraicho« JAPAN* 


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GOODS manufactured in Tokyo, which won the world-wide rep- 
utation, are exhibited at the World's Fair at St. Louis. We 
cordially invite all visitors to the Fair to examine the exhibits. 
They are of fine workmanship and useful. Orders for any 
amount may be sent to the Japanese Exhibitors' Association 
at the Japanese Pavilion, World's Fair Grounds. 

Artl«tl« Medal 

Ichisei Hasegawa. 
'Shigemitsa Birata. 
Genroka Awaya. 
Yeisho Knrokawa. 
Yeijiro Kashima. 
Yohel Kawafftictai. 
Katsuhiro Kagawa. 
Setssei Okasaki. 
Katsa Miyamoto. 
Kinbei Mnrata. 
Kosabaro Mikawa. 
Sataro Matsumoto. 
Kyabel Hayashi. 
Tokujiro Matsunaga. 
KiiDinoBuke Soma. 
Qeliro Makino. 
Tatsaoki Nogami. 
Kojiro Kobayashi. 
Sosake Nakamara. 
Katsaliro Igarashi. 
Yoicbiro Takasaki. 
Shakyo Tsakada. 
Ohoklchi Sazaki. 
Iwa Nakamnra. 
Klnosuke Nakamara. 
Kahei Shimoseki. 
Mitsahiro Maki. 
Nobayosbi Sasaki. 
Kashiohi Sano. 

Clotlies, Embroid- 
eries and Oen- 
eral Silk eo«Ml«. 

Toyotama Orimono 

Qoshi Kaisha. 
Kaneshichi Maeda. 
Tetsajiro Sekigachi. 
Washlohi Yamasaki. 

Kalchiro Pajlkl. 
Qihei Nakanishi. 
Yozaemon Falikake. 
Torakiohi Kataniwa. 
Sensake Nemoto. 
Tsanejiro Hirata. 
Joshi Kogei Qakko. 

Raw Silk 
and Yarned Silk. 

Taizo Morita. 
Tokanosake Machida. 
Kahei Nlshlda. 

Japan ITare. 

S^nosuke Fakanaga. 
KThei Hayasbi. 
Asaliro Icbisbima. 
Sadabami Ito. 
Tsaneliro Oyama. 
Magozaemon Kasbi- 

Ubel Kato. 
Shikku Gosbi Kaisba. 
Nisshin Torya Koba. 
Takayasa Sasaka. 
Kahei Magi. 

I«eatlier and 

Uhachi Kamagae. 
Daijlro Kamagae. 
Kisake Shimiza. 
Takejiro Goto. 
Ryonosake Kobayashi 
Tobei Kobayashi. 
Tctsuilro Kogo. 
Shiniiro Matsukane. 
Shinjiro Nishimara. 


Gozo Ishikaro. 
Tomotaro Kato. 
Koichi Takemot-o. 
Kozan Horikawa. 
Kichigoro Sazaki. 
Kinjiro Tanigachi. 
Kamasabaro Kojima. 
Ryosai Inoaye. 
Tomojiro Kato. 
Hideo Kawamoto. 
Kihachiro Watanabe. 


Sosake Namikawa. 
Kichigoro Suzuki. 


Kanf'liro Kaneda. 
Kichigoro Sazuki. 
Toyoshichi Kato. 
Kichigoro Marata. 
Tokahei Watanabe. 

IPV^ockI and Bam- 
boo ITorka. 

Jitsataro Ishiseki. 
Kicnigoro Suzuki. 
Jingoro Hattori. 
Kenzo Kosuge. 
Yukichi Ono. 


Saiiiro Takada. 
Jusniro Shinowara. 
Tetsu Kobayashi. 
Zenbei Kobayashi. 
Iwasaki Shokai. 
Toyotaro Kusagari. 
Kichigoro SuzuKi. 
Kosabura Mikawa. 

T0rm »iid ArllA- 

ESobl Mictti. 

Go BfnnlciiRiL. 

Saljlro THkftfla. 
Mnnjl Uattori. 

iwataro AsadIeb,. 

Selenlilll« Iiutra- 

Takao Ito. 
Kiyostai Yasui. 
Mokajiro Tanaka. 
Stalnkichi Maeda. 
Kanetaro Inoaye. 
Kikajtro Shibukawa. 
Tokichi Asanama. 
Sadakichi Moriya. 
Takejiro Hasegawa. 

PrlntlBV and 

Shlnbi Shoin. 
Heikichl Mat«aki. 
Tomosabaro Toyama. 
Sbiichi Tajima, Shin- 

HanBbichi Yoshi- 

Ichisbin Ogawa. 
Matsngoro Aral. 


Zenbei Kobayashi. 
Mansabnro Mara- 

Kamekichi Yamasa- 

Kikumatsu Kato. 
Hosake Nakamara. 
Shojiro Igarashi. 
Uhacbl Knmagaya. 

Oenta' and Ija- 

dlea* Farnlali. 


Tarokichl Icbikawa. 

ByonoBuke Kobaya- 

Tobei Kobayashi. 

Kichigoro Suzuki. 

SbiDlcniro Yokoya- 

Saijiro Takada. 

Daijiro Kumagaya. 

Uhacbi Kumagaya. 

Yonematsu Nakada. 

Mototaro Nagano. 

Tomosbiohi Saka- 

Yoshizo Minakawa. 

Kogoro Numaknra. 

General Ooods. 

Kojiro Suzuki. 
Koshiro Inouye. 
Tatsujlro Aida. 
Kuwajiro Iwamoto. 
Yosuke Suida. 
Saijiro Takada. 
Meiko Sha. 
Ebaragun Bakukan- 

sanada Kumial. 
Keisaburo Anzyo. 

Toilet Articles. 

Sanpei Hirao. 
Fukataro Ando. 
Tom ill ro Kobayashi. 
Kichiliro Saito. 
Tomiro Nagase. 



Teleplione and 

Gataro Oki. 
Oki Shokai. 

Statlatles of Elee- 

Kihachiro Okura, Ni- 
hon Denki Kyokai 

Rice and drain. 

MatsunoBuke Awa. 


Wahei Ishibashl. 


Matsupei Iwaya. 


Nippon Beer Kabushi- 
ki Kaisha. . 

Plant Seeds. 

Torajiro Watase 
Jirokichi Ikeda. 

Preeloas Stones. 

Kesazo Yoda. 

Flshlnv Articles. 

Rikichi Nakamura. 
Ni ppon Sei ma Kaisha. 

Fine Art»-PalBt- 

CytjknBbi AtoidL 
Qj^bo Haahlmotci. 

GvokudQ Kawai, 
Ku hijiro Kutmtft. 
' GM.'l£Lidoii Muruse. 
Sei^hu MorobofthL 
BuDkyo Nomura. 
Kjiiwlhjcbt Nofluye^ 
Suiun NoKiicbL 
K>MU 3 hi mas at L 
Toyo ^iilmis^ti. 
Qv {1 k u c^n T ak ahaa bl , 
at jEzo Takada. 
Gekku Oirada. 
Cnkei KawaJL 
Kobi FakuoaKa. 
Haku Ytmhtda^ 
Unoauke dbono. 
Yoahiye Ok*. 
KuiEteblTo MiUn^a. 
Sbog&.n iCatano. 

I«acquer IPITare. 
Kubei Havashi. 
Sakajiro Nakamura. 
Shoka Tsujimura. 

Sculpture and 

Kanejiro Kaneda. 
Kyhei Ishii. 
Ghozo Toyama. 
Yeisho Kurokawa. 
Shigetaro Mukai. 
Shnnmin Funagoshi. 
Kazuo Udakawa. 
Koun Yakushili. . 
Ghoun Yamasakit 
Ghokichi Suzuki. 
Insai Abe. 
Nagoa Watanabe. 


Shidzuoka Raw Silk 
Manufacturers* Association 

Raw silk is one of the staple commodities in Shidzuoka. Ow- 
ing to the recent progress of sericultural industry in the prefec- 
ture, we have seen a great increase both in demand and conse- 
quently in supply of the article. This is mainly due to the three 
following conditions: (1) the soil is well adapted to the cultiva- 
tion of the mulberry tree; (2) the climate is favorable for the 
development of the silk -worm, and (3) the water is so soft as to 
be well suited for the manufacture -of silk. Besides these gifts 
of nature, the careful selection of silk -worm eggs, improvements 
both in the art of raising silk- worms and in the method of silk 
manufacture, also form important factors in the marvelous de- 
velopment of the industry in the prefecture. 

With a view to improvement in sericulture and silk-manu- 
facture, an association of those engaged in the pursuit is organ- 
ized, which is making energetic efforts to secure its purpose. 

The silk produced here is very excellent in its qualities, and 
it surpasses any silk from other places in its gloss, elasticity and 
the uniformity of its size. 

How great attention is paid to the industry by the sericultur- 
sts in the prefecture may well be judged by the fact that a school 
s established at the town of Hamamatsu, with a view to the 
inculcation of systematic studies on this subject. 

At present there are more than eighty silk factories in 
Shidzuoka. At all of these establishments, machinery of the 
latest invention is used. The total yield of the raw silk produced 
here during the year 1903 aggregated over 457,900 pounds, 
which amounted to $1,864,592. 

If at least one-sixth of the vast heaths and wild plains of the 
prefecture is laid out so as to be fit for the cultivation of mul- 
berry trees, and the nursing of silk -worms is increased accord- 
ingly (which, it is hoped, will be realized in no remote future), 
it will not be difficult to increase the production of silk in the 
prefecture to the sum of $5,000,000 a year. 

The raw silk is exhibited by the Association at the Manufac- 
tures Building. We invite all to examine our goods. 

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Under Contract <onth the Imperial Government of Japan for the 
Conveyance of Mails. 

Nippon Yusen Kaisha 


Head Office, Tokyo, Japan* 

Telegraphic Address ^Morioka^ Tokyo.'' A I and A B C Codes tssed 
Fleet, 80 vessels. Afa a^n Tonnage, 260|000 tons* 

The Company maintain with twelve twin screw steamers of 
over 6,000 tons, a regular fortnightly service between Yokohama, 
London and Antwerp, calling en route at Kobe, Moji, Shangjhai, 
Hongkong, Singapore, Penang, Colombo, Port Said and Marseilles 
on the outward voyage, and on the voyage homeward, at London, 
Port Said, Colombo, Singapore, Hongkong and Kobe, taking through 
cargo to and from various points on the continent of Europe. 


The Company maintain with six steamers, four of which are 
new twin screw steamers of over 6,000 tons, with excellent paiss- 
enger accommodation, a regular fortnightly service to the U. S. A., 
running between Hongkong, Shanghai and Seattle, via Kobe, Moji, 
Yokohama and Victoria, connecting at Seattle with the Great 
Northern Railroad. 

This railway, which passes through the valley of the Columbia 
River and the Rockies, is one of the lines with most scenic beauties 
in America. The rail equipment is surpassed by none, and is far 
superior to the other Pacific lines, not to speak of the elegant buffet 
library car which in itself is a great comfort and convenience to 


The Company have a regular four-weekly service to Australia 
between the ports of Yokohama, Kobe, Moji (outward only),N8iga- 
saki, Hongkong, Manila^ Thursday Island, Townville, Brisbane, Syd- 
ney and Melbourne. 

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The steamers employed on this service are the Kumano Maru, 
6,076 tons; Nikko Maru, 5,600 tons; and Yawata Maru, 3,800 
tons. They are fitted with every modem appliance for safety and 
comfort of passengers, and vastly superior to any other steamer 
plying between the Orient and Australia. 


The Company's service between Yokohama and Bombay is 
maintained with three fast steamers of over 3,000 tons gross, leav- 
ing each port every four weeks, and calling en route at Kobe, Moji, 
Hongkong and Singapore. On the horpeward voyage, Tuticorin is 
sometimes called at, instead of Colombo, while Moji is omitted. 

On 'all the steamers of the above-mentioned lines, a duly quali- 
fied surgeon will attend gratis to passengers in case of illness. 
Experienced stewards, stewardesses and well-trained servants are 

In addition to the above mentioned services. Company have 
regular lines running between : 

Yokohama and Shanghai, via Kobe, Moji and 

Nagasaki Weekly. 

Shanghai-Hankow Line Six times a month. 

Kobe-Vladivostock, via ports Fortnightly. 

Kobe-Corea-North China Line Fortnightly. 

Kobe-North China Line 

r Kobe-Tientsin Line Fortnightly. 

< Kobe-Newchwang Line Fortnightly. 

LKobe-Taku (direct) Twice a month. 

Kobe and Otaru, via ports : 

Eaistern Route Every three days. 

Western Route Weekly. 

Kobe and Keelung f via Moji Twice a month. 

(Formosa) \ via Moji and Nagasaki . Twice a month. 

Besides these, there are frequent services between the coast 
ports of Japan. 





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Toyo Kisen Kaisha 

(OrUntal* Steamship Company.) 


Tokphama. \\^Hfi^»^^^^ ^"^ Fraaciico 

San Francisco -Hongkong Line, 

Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, through Inland Sea to Naga- 
saki, thence to Shanghai and Hongkong, and vice versa. 

S. S. ''Nippon Maru." 

S. S. "America Maru,*' 

S. S. "Hongkong Maru." 

The finest first-class mail and passenger steamer hav- 
ing up-to-date accommodations in all respects. 
The Company provides the best Enter- 
tainment - and Cuisine. 

Hongkong-Manila Line. 

S. S. "Rosetta Maru." 
S. S. "Rohilla Maru." 

The Fastest, Largest and Finest Steamers on the 
Route, always securing Eight-Tenths of the Traveling 
Public between the Ports. 

General Agency, San Franciaco. 


Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, Shanghai, iHongkong, 
Manila and Principal Ports in the )^rld. 

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MaCnila and Principal Ports in the World. 

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Wease return promptly. 



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JAN 2 9 2002